STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY
This research work is to examine the strategies for improving labour productivity, which is sure outlet of our today economic predicament. The work will be centered on manufacturing, using Asaba Textile mill plc as a case study, the research, will emphasis much on productivity increase because of increase in the production and depletion of natural resources leading to a low standard of living of people. A number of theoretical orientations will provide a foundation for the research. Data shall be obtained through the use of well – organized structural questionnaires, which will be administration to the management and non-management workers. Interviews will also be conducted on some of the workers. At the final stage, the analysis of the result will reveal that, poor attitude of the Nigeria worker to worker sterns from low moral resulting from inadequate motivation, low moral resulting from incentives and lack of prospect of reaching one’s personal goal through high productivity in the organization. Major recommendation to Asaba Textile Mill (ATM) will be made since Asaba Textile Mill PLC is required to incorporate motivational measures into it’s management policy. There is also the need to increase the use of financial incentive in the organization, to strengthen their training programme and also to make productivity pate to personal goal realization in the company. The research work and study will be divided into five chapters; starting from background of the study, statement of problems, objective of the study, statement of hypothesis, methodology, scope of the study, justification for the study, limitation, plans of study. Chapter two; is on literature review, from different classical management school of thought, such as scientific management author, classical economic theory, expectancy theory etc. Chapter three, centered on the researched methodology sampling techniques method of data collection and the data presentation analysis etc. Chapter four; is on the analysis and interpretation of the data. Chapter five; shall focus on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The word productivity simply means the ratio of output to the corresponding input of labour. It often poses more questions than answers. This is because the output of a worker depends on an almost infinite number of variables.
A reference to labour productivity at any level connotes higher returns on utilization of labour. The word productivity has become so necessary and essential that it appears in every journal, or any business papers.
In recent times, emphasis on productivity has also increase in the population and the depletion of nature resources leading to a low standard of living of the people. Here we say that the greater the amount of goods and service produced in an economy, the higher the standard of living of the citizens. At the corporate level, productivity helps to increase the profit level while at the individual level, productivity is a concern for the direction of growth wealth, self-reliance and self support and this will involve the management of total resources at our disposal.
Historically , our country has enjoyed high productivity in the past, this was a result of the several factors adequate motivational factors, enough financial incentives, and adequate job training which helped to increase productivity in the past but eventually productivity level have changed . over some decades now, productivity has been witnessing a dramatic declaiming in the productivity of labour: The economy has change from that of surplus one to that of deficient economy. The cost of living has risen drastically, the balance of trade and balance of payment has deprecated and the quantity and quality of output has been varying at best.
This downward trend in productivity has been widely attributed to the decline in labour productivity. This is attributed to the fact that labour is the most important factor of production and the fact that labour is the most easily quantified factor of production.
Herbison (1973) was of this view when he argued human resoureces constitute the ultimate basis for wealth of nations. Capital and natural resource are passive factors of production hence, he says that human beings are the achieve agents who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources build social, economic and political organization and carry forward national development.
Essentially economic scholars and policy makers in less developed countries have unanimously agreed that the best way out of this their less propitious /favour economic situation characterized by massive balance of payment deficits, chronic foreign exchange storage and other which has effect of the under cutting output growth via high cost of large chunck of factor inputs is by cutting back imported inputs significantly and adapting an inward working policy.
Thus, to trigger and sustain growth momentum, indigenous sectors of the economics both private and public.
In the ongoing problems of labour productivity in our organization is our second concern. It is a common believe by managers and workers that workers that workers in Nigeria are not working as hard as they used to. These workers are seen to lack zeal, briskness and the momentum of committed hard working people and generally they appears to be indifferent to the sure of efficiency, dedication, productivity all of which characterizer back of high achievement.
Thus, revealing less in the vaunted Nigeria work and personal achievement.
Economist, psychologist (industrial), industrial and personnel relations and mangers believes that the best way to bring back such worker to the state in with they can be productive again is to motivate them. The researchers also share this believes. This becomes the basis upon which this research work become necessary.
The study is going to be fully employed is Asaba Textile Mill (ATM). Delta State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Several business and government organization in Nigeria is recent time have been characterized by a fall in their labour productivity. This is manifested in the lack of requisite equipment lack of relevant incentives, fall in government parastatal, industries, pay pockets, closer of banking industries, failure after huge amount of capital and natural resources have been invested on it and failure of business organization to break even.
Earlier survey revealed that lack of requisite equipment constituted a download trend in output per – one hour and this will bring a fall in labour productivity. Level it has also been seen that when capital, and natural resources are increasing the productivity level have been declining.
This investment without corresponding output has been attributed widely to baour productivity bottleneck.
Most workers become unproductive when they are not given the necessary incentive. Also most business and government parastatal in Nigeria have turned to no less than as workers are endured unproductive, inefficient and idle.
Moreover, it has become bad work or practise breading ground such as negligence of study, absenteeism, workers and management, insular donation, persistent lateness to work, sleeping on duty and other. The effect of all these have manifested in the decline in labour productivity.
One day they ask, what are the causes of these bad work practices and this attend and how productivity from the worker why the loss of the good work ethnic with which Nigeria workers are known, committed to hard work and personal achievement. It is because of the way he is managed? Has he lost the dignity of labour and why? Is his working environment affecting him? Has the work become too complicated for him? Could it be because he is poorly compensated in the occurrence naturally spontaneous or cause less? How then can we bring them back to their former and even higher place of productivity.
In this regard, effects will be made by the researcher to provide empirical solution to the following research question .
- Is there any relationship between productivity and the management of the organization
- How do workers perception of his work as a path to his personal goal in an organization effect the effort he puts in and hence his productivity in the organization.
- Could there be any relationship between labour productivity and other factors such as job satisfaction, reward system, and incentive inherent in hios work place?
- What is the motivating incentive to labour.
- Is training really essential in making workers productive?
- Which other implication or explicit have significant impact on labour productivity in Asaba Textile Mill.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Human elements (labour) are the most important productive factore in any organization since there can be no performance upon which any anticipation can be based without people, since the most important problem confronting us today in various organization is how to get people work in constructive sense or in the manner that would produced desired result and give worker sense of fulfillment.
Thus, thus study will have to work at the following objectives.
- Identification of factors that motivate workers.
- The study will also formulate some strategies based on the motivational factors.
- The research work will also present empirical result.
- The study will also examine the extent in which motivational factors have been able to achieve till date.
- The research will also examine the negative criticism against Nigeria labour as being naturally lazy and productive.
- It is also the objective of this study to make recommendation based on findings.
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis
- There is no significant relationship between motivational factor such as money, promotion , job security , housing, praise medical or health facilities, opportunity for advancement etc. and high productivity
- Financial incentives are not likely to increase labour productivity than non- financial incentives.
- Those workers do not see high productivity as a path leading to the attachment of one or more of this personal goal.
1.5 Methodology of Study
In carrying out this research work, primary source of data is obtain through personal interview, moral interview, questionnaire, method of information will be adopted, information collected will form a primary source of data relating to the research work.
Chi-square (X2) method will be used to text the significant financial incentives, job training and productivity of labour.
This method is necessary in a situation where the qualities of several proportions are tested. Thus it will be used to analyze the response provided by the respondent to the questionnaire administered.
1.6 Scope of the Study
As the title of this study depicts, this study is concerned with strategies for increasing labour productivity.
This study is not intended to cover all aspects of labour productivity such as technical, environment efforts of labour productivity. It is primarily concerned with the motivational aspects of labour for productivity enhancement. Moreover, this study is based on Asaba Textile mill (ATM) Asaba Delta State. All analysis made in this research is based on the data and information gathered from the company. The context of the study is base on the assumption that (ATM) which is a public liability company (Plc) has a similar structure, characteristics and features with other government owned institution and also on the fact that workers and management’ Nigeria organization are similar.
The limitation of this study includes the environment in which studies was carried out ATM. It was claimed that the company usually publish annual report and statement of accounts from which it’s performance over the years could be assessed and compared.
The research though relevant to the company is limited to the headquarter office is Asaba Delta State without extending the study to other branches due to constrains other limitation to this study include that the report of this study will be based on a number of responses got via questionnaires returned observations and interviews granted by key personal in the company and available records. Also time and financial contains are limiting factors to study.
1.7 Limitation of Study
In the process of conducting this research, certain problem or constrain are bound to be witnessed. Some if these constrain are as follows:
- Inadequate fund: Now that the economy is an depressed state, financial constraint would not be overlooked. Asaba Textile Mill Plc, is a big organization and obtaining relevant information from outside the organization to produce a sound project would need a lot of money. This will affect the number of questionnaire copies that will be administered to respondent and reduce the area to be visited for sourcing of materials. This will on the long run affect the quality of data used in the production of the research work.
- Time: This project will be written long with reading for text and examination and as such will prevent an in-depth investigation into all available text books journals, magazine and other research works relative to the research.
1.8 Justification for the Study
According to the former president of American Garald Ford, (1974-1977) productivity must improve if we are to have less inflationary economy that is the productivity of any economy will be at its increasing rate when the economy is witnessing a less inflationary rate. In a growth economy, every on labour management and the consumer gains when productivity expands.
The central place of productivity to the labour consumer, manager entrepreneur and government in their welfare enhancement has essentially justified this study. The present economic predicament facing the country is a new development. Consequently the need to take series of firm economic measure to bring back sandy into the operation of the economic system by government and companies becomes absolutely necessary. So far, there seem to be no previous study in motivation of labour in the past, especially in coping this dawn turn in nour economic system.
The reaction of companies to various austerity and adjustment take by the government takes different forms. Many companies have referenced their workers, some have short down some have put their workers on half pay hoping, for a better days to come, but so far the Asaba Textile Mill plc which is our focus in this study has been able to maintain its head the waters in the midst of economic crisis in the country. The researcher believes in workers motivation, which will certainly encourage the worker to put in their best effort so as to achieve the organization instead of retrenchment of workers.
1.9 Plan of Study
This study is divided into five chapter, the first chapter is an introductory chapter in which we have the background of the study, statement and problems, objective of the study, statement of hypothesis, methodology of study, scope of the study, limitation of study, justification for the study and plan of the study.
The second chapter review a number of literature and empirical studies on factors affecting labour productivity. Under this chapter we have some literature review, theoretical orientation and under this we have classical economic theory, need theory, motivation- hygiene theory, expectancy theory, roles of specialization and division of labour, scientific management, cognitive dissonance theory, equity theory, incentive theory, definition of terms and measurement of concept, relevant study/empirical evidence the dominant roles of wages, primacy of scientific management as determinant of labour productivity job context and productivity and the path-goal approach to labour productivity.
The fourth chapter the researcher will present analysis and interpretation of data.
The fifth chapter comprises of the summary of finding recommendation and conclusion.