Dec 27, 2019 No Comments ›› OpenBook


This research work seeks to investigate the “factors affecting effective teaching and learning”. The method used in teaching is not properly done, the age of the pupils are not usually considered before selecting the method for teaching in Kaduna south local government Area. This justifies the imperativeness for conducting a research on the Effectiveness of teaching and learning in Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority. The literature review was organized under three broad areas i.e. the conceptual framework, the theoretical framework and other issues.  In order to conduct the study, a survey research design, was adopted, forty teachers from four different schools were randomly sampled. Using Questionnaire and interview as the major instruments for Data collection. Tables and percentage were used for data presentation thereby enabling for easy discussion and interpretation of data. At the end of the data gathering, the study revealed that although teaching and learning is going on in some schools within the study area, teachers encounter certain difficulties. Some of these difficulties include Lack of Instructional Materials, Lack of Conducive Learning Environment, Language and Social Barriers of the learners. Thus, the study concluded by giving mechanism and approaches such as demonstration, use of teaching aids, dramatizing, storytelling, excursion. Enhancing and Improving teaching and Learning in the Study Area. Finally, the appropriate recommendations are put forward for improving the Effectiveness of Teaching and Learning within the study area, some of which includes the involvement of parents in the educational process of their children, School Health Services should be revived and inculcated in the National Policy on Education. Teachers should be proactive and respond to urgent needs of their pupils.





1.1       Background to the Study

The authority which a teacher exercises over a child is as a result of his standing in place of the parent, that is in Loco parentis. By a teacher being in loco parentis, to the pupils in his care is meant that, he assumes the rights and duties of the natural parent of the child. By sending the child to school, the parent has authorized the school teacher to administer reasonable school regulation in addition to his teaching responsibility to the child.

The issue of professionalism in relation to the teaching occupation has occupied various literatures and writings of many scholars for a long time. Very often, occupational groups have referred to their occupations as professions as long as members are able to come together to discuss issues of common interest. Sociologists have addressed professionalism and made some contributions regarding its ingredients or characteristics.

For example, an occupation can be truly a profession or a semi-profession, depending on the level of authority enjoyed by the group. Other considerations, which are not exhaustive, include normal educational level of authority activity which aims at bringing about learning or impartation of knowledge into the learners. So also, a teacher must intentionally be well acquainted with the various ways by which he/she can transfer knowledge, skills and ideas to his/her students. He/she must have the required professional knowledge and skills. He/she must also possess the mastery of the subject matter, since the students depend much on the teacher for acquiring new knowledge. No teacher can impart the knowledge that he/she has not acquired, therefore the teacher must prepare adequately well in advance.

Teachers are trained in the art of teaching because of the child. The principles and methods of teaching should be guided by the experience of the child, the environment and the innovative approach to reaching where students have control over their learning contrary to the traditional approach to students learning. So he/she must have the practice, theory, child study and study various branches of knowledge like methods, principles and general study for the benefit of the child. The teacher is only teaching when a child is learning.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In today’s Nigeria, the educational system is faced with the challenge of effective teaching methods and a myriad of other related problems thereby having its toll effects on the learning states of the students.  The Nigerian ‘Union of Teachers is however constrained by its limited budget to look to alternative means of carrying out its statutory responsibilities. Not only this, the cost of governance has increased lately making the government to cut down budgets of its ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) in a bid to stay afloat.

Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: Issues and Problems

Early years in life are the most important to the formation of intelligence, personality and social behaviour of a child. The year before a child reaches Kindergarten are among the most critical in his or her life to influence learning. That is why modern societies show serious concern for the education of their young ones by providing needed support to prepare them to succeed later in school (Ejieh, 2006). It is common practice in most societies to make provision for early childhood education programmes of various sorts for children below the official school-going age (usually 6years) mainly to prepare them for education in primary schools (Obidike, 2012). The Federal

Government of Nigeria recognizes the importance of early childhood education in Nigeria and as a result it was given prominence in the National Policy of Education ( FRN, 2004) as one of the programmes in the Nigerian educational system.

Bagudo (2008), posited that reports across the globe revealed that an estimated figure of one hundred million children, struggle daily for survival in villages and cities, and are exposed to the risks of hunger, poverty, disease, illiteracy and abuses. In support of this view, Mahuta (2007) stresses that the need to address the problems and salvage these children and the next generation of children from these menace, has necessitated the programme of Early Childhood Care Development and Education (ECCDE).

Mahuta (2007) also stated that the aim of ECCDE is to foster the proper development of the children, identify and address their problems, harness their potentials, mould their character, enhance their learning, equip them for life, so that their actions are channeled towards positive personal, communal and global development in all ramifications of life. A brief history of early childhood education in Nigeria.

History of Early Childhood Education in Nigeria

In Nigeria, organized education of the child below primary school age did not receive official recognition until very recently, receive the attention it deserved. The concept of infant schools was introduced in Nigeria by the missionaries in the early 20th century when such schools were set up in the Western and Eastern regions of Nigeria. Early Childhood education in the form of nursery school or pre-primary education as we know it today in Nigeria is largely a post-colonial development. The semblances of it during the colonial era were the Kindergarten and infant classes, which consisted of groups of children considered not yet ready for primary education. As groping for instruction in schools was not age-based during that period, some children aged six or

even more, could be found in some of the infant classes (Tor-Anyiin, 2008). With the phasing out of infant classes, some parents began to feel the need for nursery schools.

During that period, (pre-independence) all efforts for provision of early childhood education were confined to the voluntary sector and received little or no support from the government (Tor-Anyiin, 2008). It was for the first time in 1977 with the introduction of National Policy on Education by the then military government of Nigeria that the importance and need for early childhood education was given official recognition and linked with the child’s educational performance in primary school. Gradually, early childhood institution stayed, and by 1985, Nigeria had about 4200

early childhood educational institutions. While by 1992 the number increased to about 8,300 (Federal Government of Nigeria/UNICEF 1993).

Nowadays, early childhood educational institutions are located in various places and buildings compuses of universities and Colleges, premises of some industries and business organizations, church premises, residential buildings with unprecedented expansion owing to the high demand for early childhood care and education by parents (Ejieh, 2006).

  1. Concept of Early Childhood Care and Education

Maduewesi (1999) refers to early childhood care and Education as the education offered to children who have not yet reached the statutory age of beginning primary school. He further maintained that it is a semi-formal education arrangement, usually outside home where by young children from about the age of 3 years are exposed through play like activities in a group setting through mental, social and physical learning suited to their developmental stages, until the mandatory age of government approved formal schooling. FRN (2004) refers to Early childhood care and Education

(pre-primary education) as an education given in an educational institution to children aged 3-5 plus prior to their enrollment in the primary school.

  1. Objectives of Early Childhood Education

The objectives of early childhood education according to FRN (2004) are:

  1. Effect a smooth transition from home to school
  2. Prepare the child for the primary level of education
  3. Provide adequate care and supervision for the children while their parents are at work (on the farm, in the market or offices)
  4. Inculcate social norms
  5. Inculcate in the child the spirit of inquiry and creativity through the exploration of nature, the environment, art, music and playing with toys and so on.
  6. Develop a sense of cooperation and team spirit
  7. Learn good habits, especially good health habits and.
  8. Teach the rudiments of numbers, letters, colours, shapes, forms and so on through play.
  9. Basic Curriculum Provision of National Policy on Pre-Primary Education

The FRN (2004) outlined some steps the government designed to achieve the objectives of preprimary education in Nigeria, which are as follows;

(i) Encourage private efforts in the provision of pre-primary education

(ii) Making provision in Teacher Training Institution for production of specialist teacher in Preprimary education.

(iii) Ensuring that the medium of instruction will be principally the mother-tongue or the language of the local community.

  1. Develop the orthography for many more Nigerian languages, and.
  2. Produce textbooks in Nigerian languages, FRN reported that some of these developments are already being pursued in the University Departments of linguistics under the auspices of some state ministries of Education. This Language centre will be expanded so as to have wide scope;

(iv) Ensure that the main method of teaching in the pre-primary institutions will be through play and that the curriculum of teacher training college is appropriately oriented to achieve this.

  1. Early Childhood Education and its Problems

Nigerian education system since independence can best be described as a system riddled with crisis. It is not strange for this to be so, because we had inherited the system from our colonial master (Eriba, 2011). Judged against this premise, it becomes very challenging for Nigerians to manage the educational system passed to them by the British. So the system becomes inundated with diverse crises since independence. According to Eriba (2011), the educational system has been in a state of permanent crisis that it has lost quality, efficacy and functionality over the years.

Early childhood education in Nigeria is not left out in these crises which tend to make the gains of education less spectacular. The challenges which these problems have precipitated for the nation will be highlighted in few key areas so as to provide a framework for considered action by the stakeholders.

  1. Proliferation of Early Childhood Institutions

The official provision made in the National Policy on Education (FGN 2004) mandated the Government to encourage private efforts in the provision of early childhood education in the country. Moreso, owing to the high demand for early childhood education by parents, it does not take a long time for newly established early childhood institutions to grow and develop. According to Nwakaego (2007), it is becoming customary to operate a early childhood institution in every household. Currently, early childhood education institutions are located in various places and buildings-campuses of some universities and colleges, premises of some industrial and business organizations, church premises, residential buildings some part or the whole of which are hired for use as early childhood schools (Ejieh, 2006). The flip side of this proliferation of early childhood institutions is that, the issue of standard and “regulations” have been waved off. The end result is that the young minds are offered “substandard” and “irregular” education that cannot breed egalitarianism and self-reliant individuals of the society and leaders of tomorrow.

  1. Quality and Qualification of Teachers

The quality of the teachers determines the strength of any educational system and the value of the learners (Okoro, 2004). In Nigerian early childhood institutions today, the teacher quality is generally low. It is only a few of the nursery schools especially those owned by educational institutions, private companies and wealthy individuals that can afford to engage the services of university graduate teachers and holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) qualifications, competent and committed teachers and are also capable of retaining such teachers. Most others employ a few NCE teachers (if any at all), who are usually underpaid, while others employ mainly Grade Two teachers and secondary school leavers with school Certificate or General Certificate (ordinary level) qualification. In a situation where most of the teachers in our early childhood institutions are unqualified and/or unprofessional, effective teaching and learning cannot be achieved.

  1. In-effective Supervision of Early Childhood Institutions

No educational plan however excellent it may be, can be effectively implemented if the school supervision is ineffective. State Ministry of Education officials are in principle, supposed to visit and inspect the physical plant, the human and other resources available in a proposed nursery school and if these are found to be adequate, the ministry would approve the school for operation. In most cases these visits are made a long time after the school had become operational and had been paying the prescribed taxes. The same is true in regard to teachers in nursery schools. Some of the people employed to teach the children are neither trained to teach nor do they know how to handle or relate to children.

  1. Language Policy Implementation

Inspite of the laudable provision of the language policy nothing much seems to have been achieved. Firstly, the position of Nigerian language as a medium of instruction is hard to come by.

The FGN/UNICEF (1993) reported that about 93.2% of teaching and learning in Nigeria preschools was done in English. The 6.8% use immediate language shows clear lackadaisical attitude towards the implementation of the issue of medium of instruction in mother-tongue or language of immediate community. This problem is likely to be connected with parents and pupils interest in English which has been in use since 1842, as well as its official position in Nigeria (Tor-Anyiin, 2008). The low literacy rate even in English indicates poor implementation of the language policy, he further maintained that lack of implementation of language policy has affected the quality of Nigeria Educational development.

  1. Teacher-Pupil Ratio

The policy position of teacher pupil ratio of 1:25 is also not implemented due to lack of supervision or monitoring. Indeed, since businessmen/women dominates this education sector, profit maximization is their main concern. As such, employing more teachers to maintain this ratio is not beneficial to them, hence, early childhood institutions have a ratio that depends on available children. This goes further to explain the accommodation problem of this educational level. Though higher institutions are now offering early childhood education courses, however, Government nonencouragement in terms of scholarship and teachers’ poor financial remuneration is blocking many of the opportunities to go for such courses and help man the institutions. Indeed, since, the proprietors are money conscious their payment is not encouraging to warrant many people take to the study of early childhood education (Tor-Anyiin, 2008).

  1. Negligence on the Part of Government

Of all the measures that Federal Government undertook in order to facilitate the achievement of the objectives of early childhood education, the only one it has effectively accomplished is the granting of permission for private efforts in the provision of early childhood education in the country, with virtually less or non participation by the public sector. This, in addition to lack of supervision to ensure the maintenance of standards, has led to increases in numbers of early childhood education institutions in the country. Significant provision is yet to be made in public or private teacher training institutions in the country for the production of specialist teachers, it is doubtful if it can attract many clients, as neither the Federal nor any state government has established any nursery or early childhood schools where graduates of such programme can be employed. Work in private nursery or early childhood institutions would probably have no attraction for specialist in early childhood education teachers because of low wages and job insecurity associated with teaching in such institutions (Ejieh, 2006).

  1. Prospects

The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Act (2004) has an expanded scope which includes programmes and initiatives for early childhood education and development. The UBE programme has made provision for every public primary school to have a pre-primary school linkage to cater for children aged 3-5 years. This linkage will serve as a strategy for getting children ready for school and school ready for children (Hua 2010).

An inventory of ECC faculty in Nigeria conducted by FGN/NERDC/UNICEF in 2003 showed that most of the ECC facilities are private owned (42% of the sample population are private owned and 34% by the government, followed by 21% by local communities). Now that the Early Childhood Development Programme is covered by the UBE law, government ownership at state/LGA/community level is certain to increase, particularly regarding centre’s catering for the 3- 5years olds.

Early childhood care has been included in the Bachelor’s degree curriculum of the Faculty of Education of some of Nigeria’s Universities since 1991. The concept has also been integrated in the syllabus of Colleges of Education throughout the country. In-services training on the early childhood development concept and learner centered pedagogy for handling young children is continually provided to teacher/caregivers in public ECC/ pre-school facilities in UNICEF supported 111 focus LGAs nationwide. However, only now it is being recognized that early childhood care and early stimulation is the basis upon which attainment of the child’s fullest potential depends.

The Child Right Act (2003), the UBE Act (2004), the National Policy on Education, Food, Nutrition and Health are laws and policies which have given shape to different sect oral interventions on Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Currently however, an Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD) policy, that integrates interventions from the various sectors to promote an integrated holistic approach to the development of the child in its very earliest years.

Efforts are also targeted at vulnerable or disadvantaged children through community- driven and home based care and support for young children age 0-3 years supported by UNICEF in 222 focus communities nationwide has boosted access of very vulnerable and disadvantaged children to early childcare and early learning (UNESCO 2007). Launching of the children and AIDS campaign in Nigeria with increased focus, care and attention to children affected by the HIV and AIDS’ scourge.

Increased advocacy has been mounted with government and other stakeholders to ensure that young children are fully protected from the scourge of the disease.

According to UNESCO (2007), the curriculum for Early Childhood Education in Nigeria was reviewed and revised in 2003/2004 using an integrated bottom up approach, targeting children age 0-5 years. This revised curriculum has been approved for use by the government, and a training manual to facilitate use of the curriculum; is in process of development. the training manual is expected to promotes the integrated approach and cover all sectoral interventions- health, nutrition, water and environmental sanitation, psycho-social care, early learning and creating a conducive environment for them to service, live, learn and reach their full potentials.

1.3       Research Questions/ Hypotheses

This research is design to answer the following questions:

  1. How effective have teaching been in Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority?
  2. What is the level of learning among the pupils of Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority?
  3. How cordial is the relationship between the Teachers and the Learners in Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority?
  4. What is the level of parents’ involvement in the learning process of their wards in Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority?
  5. What factors affects effective teaching and learning in Kaduna South Local Government Education authority.

1.4       Purpose of the Study

  1. To find out the effectiveness of teaching and learning in Kaduna State Local Government Education Authority.
  2. To find out the level of learning among the pupils of Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority.
  • To find out how cordial is the relationship between teachers and the learners in Kaduna State Local Government Education Authority.
  1. To find out the level of parents involvement in the learning process of their wards in Kaduna State Local Government Education Authority.
  2. To find out the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in Kaduna State Local Government Education Authority.

1.5       Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is to add more to the existing researches and as well to strengthen facts and records as to the factors affecting effective teaching and learning as well as the reasons that often lead to poor teaching and learning in Kaduna South Local government education authority and other stakeholders in Nigeria.

Meaningful developments can only be achieved and sustained if and only if the standard of education of the country is high as the outcome is vast resources of intellectual elites, and such can be achieved if the educational authority is managed positively. In this study, attention is given and focused on how effective teaching and learning has effects on the development of the country. Therefore, it is of utmost significance to further unearth the factors affecting effective teaching and learning and its effects on the development of Nigeria. Meanwhile, the study will be of immense importance to stakeholders of the educational sector, which are Nigerians in general.

1.6       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope and delimitation of this study is on the factors affecting effective teaching and learning in Kaduna South Local Government Education Authority, the causes of such factors as well as the role of the stakeholders in tackling such factors, especially in Kaduna state.

To achieve effective teaching and learning, requires that the stakeholders work together to define and develop solutions to problems relating to effective teaching and learning. This is because teaching and learning is a two way relationship involving the teachers and the community. The effectiveness of the Nigerian educational system largely depends on how well the teachers are in contact with the pupils and the parents, a role that has been put t6 test lately by not only the outrageous number of failures in recent examinations but as yell the dimensions these failures are now assuming. In the face of all these challenges, the educational authority must strive to put to use other international best practices aimed at making it achieve its objectives.

1.7       Limitation of the Study

This project work is not designed to cover all the teaching and academic activities of the schools in the study area but treated the most important aspects and factors that affect effective teaching and learning as regards to some selected schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area. Therefore the research was limited to only finding out such factors and how best they can be tackled.

Again, due to the difficulty in gathering information from all schools state-wide; both private and public schools, the research was again limited to only some selected schools in the Kaduna South Local Government Area as the case study.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

Community: A group of people with common interests or with shared interests within society.

Audio-Visual aids or instructional materials: These are different forms of information carriers which are used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information for the purpose of teaching and learning. They also transmit information in such a fashion that will modify the attitude, habits and practices of students. Examples are pictures, illustrations, blackboard, televisions, charts, etc.

Teaching: Teaching is defined by many scholars of education as “the promotion of learning, some others define teaching as helping other people to learn. Teaching is the art of impacting knowledge. It is knowing what to teach the learners and ways of imparting the knowledge in the most effective way possible. Teaching is also that important art that builds up the society by the way it is done, the area in which it is conducted and its cumulative effect on the life of the society. Teaching is a process of inducing learning; it is guiding someone to behave in a given or certain manner beneficial to himself and the society.

Learning: According to Merriam Webster online, learning is the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something, it is the modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning) and Wikipedia has it that Learning is acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

Loco Parentis: The term in loco parentis. Latin for “in the place of a parent” refers to the legal responsibility of a person or organization to take on some of the functions and responsibilities of a parent. The legal doctrine under which an individual assumes parental rights, duties, and obligations without going through the formalities of legal Adoption.

Effectiveness: Working to produce the result that is needed or intended.

Strategy: A careful devised plan to action to achieve a goal or the art of developing or carrying out a plan.

Professionalism: The word profession has been defined as an occupation that can claim exclusive technical competence and also adheres to ethics of professional conduct. Elsewhere, a profession is being defined as a calling in which one professed to have acquired special knowledge used by either instructing, guiding or advising others or serving them in some art.

Syllabus: A syllabus is a broad outline of the work planned to be done in the course of a year with each class in each subject. This course work may either be constructed by the school or imposed by some external examining bodies.

Scheme of work: The scheme of work is the breaking down of topics in the syllabus into series of lessons. Scheme of work in any subject is a clear and orderly statement of the work the teacher proposes to do in a given period.

Lesson Plan: A lesson plan is the preparatory notes on the subjects to be taught on daily basis. It is the layout of how the teacher intends to handle a lesson from the beginning to the end. A lesson plan is installment with which a good teacher can effectively perform his daily classroom teaching.

Factors: According to the free Online Dictionary, factor is that which is actively contributes to an accomplishment, result, or a process, it can also be an element or cause that contributes to a result. 

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