ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION IN SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE
This research was on attitude of parents towards girl child education in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The population comprised of secondary school teachers Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state. Three (3) research questions were raised for the study. The sample consisted of 150 respondents from five (5) selected schools. The method of selection was simple random sampling process. The instrument use to collect data was a questionnaire while the data collected were analysed using percentage, frequency count and means scores. The finding revealed among others that the causes of the problem of girl child education include: parent negative attitude towards education, Early marriage of girl child do not favour their education, Some cultural believe do not encourage girl child education, Some religious practices do not favour girl education, Poverty is one of the factor that hinders Girl-Child Education, Parents are ignorance to the benefit of education, Bad government policy could affect parent attitude towards girl and Insecurity is also one of the causes of girl child education, with a sectional mean of 3.08. findings also revealed that the effect of the problem of girl child education include: Illiteracy among girl child could lead to early marriage, Illiteracy among girl child could lead to unwanted pregnancy, Illiteracy among girl child could lead to child exploitation, Illiteracy among girl child could lead to poverty, Illiteracy among girl child could lead to drop out syndrome and class repetition and Inadequate girl child education could lead to increase child mortality with a sectional mean of 3.00. in addition, finding showed that the solutions to the problem of the girl child education include: Free education should, Compulsory education, the parent should change their negative attitude toward the girl child education, more appointment should be given to women and law should be made to abolish early marriage, Law should be made to abolish early child marriage, there should be more enlightenment campaign for girl child education and there should be more reward for girl child and their parent for girl child education with a sectional mean of 3.15. The study recommended that the government should make education free up to secondary school level in the Northern part of Nigeria so that girls from poor homes can benefit. The Ministry of Women Affairs should organize Public Enlightenment programmes on the consequences of early marriage of girls. It also recommended that Parents in Sabon Gari local Government Area of Kaduna State should have a positive attitude toward girl-child education.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is one of the basic means of human and cultural self-realization as well as a means of realizing the productive power of a nation. Education is better regarded as that form of learning which lead to the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitude which enable one to adjust and contribute to the environment one find him/herself. It is that formal type received in institutions, as well as the type acquired in the informal setting, incorporating adult and non-formal education. It also embodies the various form of learning which lead to acquisition of permanent literacy (Akinkahunsi, 2019).
In a similar vein, education is the light that shows the way, medicine that cures and the key which opens all doors. Its relationship with development has been well established. One of the main aims of education is to train children for day to day living, which include enabling them to care for the need of the family as well as the nation. A successful education should also foster in children the joy and happiness of living and to help them to take their place in the society as well as balanced individuals. In his opinion Aliyu (2009), education improves health, productivity, bringing about empowerment and reduces negative features of life such as child labour. There have been important linkages between education and socioeconomic development of any society and the international community and governments all over the world have recognized and made commitments for citizens to have access to education. The importance of education in building an egalitarian society cannot be overemphasized. Probably, this was why the National Policy on Education (2014) states that every Nigerian child shall have a right to equal educational opportunities irrespective of any real or imagined disabilities, each according to his or her ability. Corroborating this fact Aliyu (2009) opined that because of the importance of education, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that every person has a right to education. In 1990, the World Conference on ”Education for All” which took place in Jomtien, Thailand, declared among others that every person shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs.
The Christian missionaries in the 19th century opened modern educational methods, but they usually focused on boys. After early experiments they settled on promoting ideology of domestic femininity imparted through girls’ schooling. Women’s education in West Africa manifested in both formal and informal structures, with one of the more notable structures that had influence on women’s education being preparatory schools labeled “Bush Schools.” These bush schools were institutions that would oftentimes boast near 100% graduation rates and completed courses. They were organized by women and had a planned, structured curriculum, which included learning how to do skills such as learning how to “fish, cook, weave, spin cotton, dress hair, and make baskets, musical instruments, pots, and fishing nets. These schools didn’t just teach educational curriculum (such as history passed on through songs and dances), but enabled the transmission of cultural values and were centres of female power. Despite the colonial and post-colonial ideal that women ought to be educated just to serve decorative or child-bearing maternal roles, these institutions taught women to play central economic, corporate and familial roles in their communities. The ideals of Western education have remained while much of the infrastructure and funding left with the colonial presence. Particularly in Nigeria, formal education was seen as a policy making tool, as women’s formal education has been linked to having effects on “population growth, health, nutrition, fertility, infant mortality, and changes in women’s productivity and earnings.” Researchers have cited some disadvantages however to this reliance on women’s formal education.
According to Muhammad, Lawal, Muhammed and Hamza (2014), Girl child education is that type of education which equips the women with all the necessary tools needed for the effective discharge of their own peculiar roles in the service of the nation and indeed, to booster their personal development as well. It is also an avenue that prepares an individual to acquire knowledge and skills that are life- long assets to them during the cause of their stay in this world. It is that process which becomes girl’s reality effective. An educated woman understands her world and deals with society well effectively. The prosperity of a country depends not only on the strength of neither fortifications nor the abundance of its income, but depends on the number of well and quality based citizens, that is character, enlightenment and women education. Therefore, education is the right of every girl everywhere and also the key to transforming both the life of girl and the life of her community.
Researches have shown that girls without education are denied the opportunity to develop their full potential and to play a productive and equal role in their families, their societies, their country and their world at large. Girls` education has been viewed as a primary predictor for a number of development indicators including national fertility rates, infant mortality, family income and productivity. World Bank economists have recognized girls’ education as single development intervention with the greatest individual and social returns. It is not only important as a social indicator or an engine for economic development leading to a greater level of health, economy, security, liberty and participation in social and political activity, but can possibly yield higher rate of return than any other investment available in developing world. In realization of the importance of the female child, concerted efforts were mounted by the governments at various levels to improve female participation in education and redress the gender inequalities in education enrolment and retention
However, the parents’ attitude towards their girl child’s education is important in determining her attendance and academic achievement of the girl child. Favourable and optimistic attitude towards education enhances parental involvement in their girl child’s present and future studies. Low socio economic status of the parent’s affects their attitude towards their children’s. In the recent years, the concept of education is beginning to be equated with learning, irrespective of where, when and how often it occurs. Parental attitude is a measure or an index of parental involvement. Family involvement in education has been identified as a beneficial factor in girl child learning. It is a key component of national educational policies and early childhood programs.
In a recent survey it was found that a child, brought up with affection and care in the least restrictive environment copes up better with the sighted world. Therefore, the family shapes the social integration of the child more than a formal school. The four basic parental roles- parents as educational decision makers include; parents as parents; parents as teachers and parents as advocates. It is essential that the home and school work closely together, especially for children with disabilities as the parents’attitude is so important. The importance of parents being partners in the education of their girl child. The foremost role of any parents should be: firstly actively support and secondly enrich the educational processes. Taminu (2004), asserted that there are two important persons in any child’s educational life. One is his/her parents while the other one is the professional of that institute. He states that parents are recognized as the major teacher of their children while the professional should be considered consultants to parents.
Aliyu (2009), in his own opinion maintained that parental attitude can be negative or positive. The negative attitude of the parents regarding education and schooling can prevent the girl child from getting education. Positive attitude of the parents can be beneficial to their children in many cases and can be reflected in improvement in class performance, creating interest among children to learn, and higher achievement scores in reading and writing and academic achievement of the child. Favourable attitude towards the need for woman participation in all facet of the national development required that emphasis be laid on the education of the girl child just as it has been for boys since education is a process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude that enable the girl child to be useful to herself and contribute to the development of her society and nation at large (Shuabu, 2015). Hence, education of the girl child is a vital ingredient through which a nation can attain any development.
In other word, Onoyase (2018),opined that the need for girl child education, is imperatively and indispensable for the socio-economic development of the Kaduna State in specific and Nigeria in general to deny or discriminate girl child education which is key to enhancing their activities and productivity means we lost focus in education. But experience have shown that there can be no significant and sustainable transformation of the state and the country and reduction in poverty until the girl child receives basic education she needed so as to have her rightful place as equal partner in development. There is a popular belief that to educate a woman is tantamount to educating the whole nation. It is a common believe that to prepare a woman effectively for her multidimensional roles, she need to be functionally literate. A functional literate woman is expected to be able to read and write, to enable her cope with the modern challenges, especially at this period when some head of the families have not taken up their responsibility seriously (Taminu, 2004).
This position appears to contradict the attitude which some parents have toward the education of their female-child. Tomba and Tinkhoiling (2017), Stated that the girl-child education has been a burning and continues issue in the developing countries of which Nigeria is one. The girl-child education can be compared to a coin which has two sides. This is because in the northern part of Nigeria, the girl-child is not encouraged to go to school, whereas in the Southern part of the country, reverse is the case. For instance, Onoyase (2018), was of opinion that the there is a glaring imbalance against girls in enrolment, attendance and completion rates in all levels of education in Nigeria particularly in northern parts of the country due to a variety of socio-cultural and religious factors. The female-child access to basic education especially in northern states of Nigeria appears to be something of great concern. He maintained that the ratio of boys to girls’ enrolment, retention and completion of secondary education particularly in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State remains alarmingly low. This is because it appears that only 20 percent of women in North-Eastern Nigeria might have been literate, culturally women are confined to their traditional roles with lots of sanctions imposed on them either by custom, norms or religion. Most parent still feel that training a girl means training her for her husband and only preparing her for home chores. It was a common belief that the education of girls end in the kitchen (Uzma, 2017).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a known fact in the world that education is the bedrock of every society and it requires to be given to all without considering the gender aspects. The problem of girl-child education is not a regional, state, National or continent but a global issue of concerned. Education is the most viable instrument by man to conquer his environment and charted his destiny
In the past few decades, girl-child education in Africa has made great progress. But relatively speaking, this progress is still slow and uneven. On the one hand, the level of development of women’s education between countries and countries in this region is still significantly different due to differences in geographical location, social class, language and ethnicity. On the other hand, compared with the rest of the world, Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, still lags behind in the field of women’s education. Girl-child education has been a burning and continuous issue in Nigeria. Its existing problem in Nigeria more especially in the Northern part of the country in which Kaduna State is one of the states and so it need to be clearly addressed. Compared with men, women in most Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State have been disadvantaged in education, and the higher the level of education, the more unfavourable the situation
The problems of girl-child education in Nigeria and in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State in particular include poverty. Although, poverty in the Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State is one major challenge of girl child education but it is not the only fact at play, the lack of access to good quality education in also one of the major determinants. Tradition and culture in which the women generally low status their status in the society and the limited expectations of opportunities of securing decent paid jobs at adult play pivotal role. Moreover, this view is compound in the parents’ eyes, if the quality of education is poor, low grade or the curriculum demands irrelevant to the girls’ future, social traditions and deep rooted religious and cultural beliefs and often barriers to expand girls’ educational opportunities in developing countries around the world. For examples in part African girls are abducted for marriage, the dowry system often promote that girls leave school for marriage in some state, the trafficking of young indigenous girls is lucrative and it is still in practice in many areas of the state despite government sanctions and also the status changes in the families that has turned many young girls into prostitute and sudden head of the family
Summarily, there are many more challenges bedevilling the girl child education in Nigeria as a whole and Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State in particular. These problems can be summarily the problem of girl-child education are numerous which may ranges from the hawking of goods by the girl-child of school ages, exploitation of the girl child by their parents, high tendencies of early marriages, religious/superstitious belief a times as a result of poverty and financial problem where some parents cannot afford to pay school fees for their children. In other cases, the problems emancipates from the fact that some parents considers educating girl child as waste of time for the sake of gender disparity or inferiority complex and above all illiteracy and poverty.
Therefore, the problem of this study is to investigate the attitudes of parents towards girl child education in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of parents towards girl child education in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The specific objectives of the study are to;
- determine the causes of the problem faced by the girl child education
- find out the effects of these problems on the girl child education
- determine the solutions to the problem of the girl child education
1.4 Research Questions
This research on the attitudes of parents’ attitudes towards girl-child education in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State it and attempts to answer the following questions:
- What are the causes or problems of the girl child education?
- What are the effects of the problems on the girl child education?
- What are the solutions to the problem of the girl child education?
1.5 Basic Assumptions
In this research, it is assumed that:
- Girl child education is important for the growth and development of Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Nigeria as a whole.
- Girl-child education is being confronted with so many problems in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- Parents’ attitude is one of the factors that determine progress of the girl-child education in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State
- Girl child education has a counselling implications
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research was carried out in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study centred on the parents, teachers, government, societies and girl child. Research has to observe the overall mention area in order to establish the attitude of the parents towards girl child education. Conversely, due to time and financial constrains the study is limited to public senior secondary school in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The outcome of the research will help educational planners, school administrators, teachers, policy makers, parents or guardians and all stakeholders to have a clear understanding of some fundamental issues related to girl-child education in Kaduna State and Nigeria in general.
The findings of this research could enable parents to be more enlightened on their responsibilities towards girl-child education. It is also hoped that this would in-turn enhance girl-child education which will lead to their contributions to the development of Kaduna State and to participate fully in developing herself, siblings, husband, home and the whole nation and would not be misused, harassed, subjected and maltreated. In order word it would enable parents who have a view about education for girl-child to have a rethink and their negatively about girl-child education changes to positively.
The findings would provide a framework upon which our national development can be depended upon and also provide a paradigm shift for the nation, that women could make meaningful contribution beyond their primary role of nursing and performing home chore.
It would also reveal the truth beyond doubt that women indeed can be role models in all sphere of national reconstruction and that empowering women has value added that is far rewarding than any other investment known in the world because when you educate a woman you are empowering a nation.
In addition, researchers would equally benefit from the study as the information provided in this study will serve as a stepping stone to those who want to carry out research in areas related to the study.
Finally, the study would add to the existing body of literature in girl-child education and provide resource material for researchers in the area study.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Attitude: This is the response of either approval or disapproval of a class of people or individual towards a particular aspect of life.
Early marriage: this explains the reason and strong desire to give out before time a young girl for marriage without putting their age into consideration
Girl-Child:- Girl-child is a feminine gender of the two genders of primary and junior secondary school age who is between the age of 6years and 16years whether disabled or not.
Ignorance: this is explained as the lack of knowledge experience of information about the importance attached to girl child education
Illiteracy: this is the inability of the girl child in this case to read and write or understand simple instructions.
Poverty: this is a state of not having access to money or resources and because of that, anything could be done without considering the consequences of individuals in question
UNICEF: United Nations Childern’s Fund
SDG: Sustainable Development Goals
GCE: General Certificate of Education
ETC: Et cetera
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