Background of the Study
Education is the process by which a society preserves its accumulated knowledge, skill and values by imparting them to its members especially the young generation. In federal republic of Nigeria (FRN)(2010) education is the process by which every society attempts to preserve and upgrade the accumulated knowledge and skills in its culture in order to foster continuously the welfare of mankind and ensure its’ survival in the face of change triggered of by man and nature.
According to Adepofu, (2004), it is a weapon for acquiring skills, relevant knowledge and habits for surviving of an individual to fast changing and innovative world. In Odigbo (2000), Education is therefore the means by which an individual is developed, so that he will be able to live efficiently and effectively in the society and contribute to its advancement and upliftment.
Childhood education is an education given to children between the ages of 2 to 11 years (pre-operational and operational stages). According to Unachukwu and Ebenebe (2009), childhood education is classified into two namely: Early childhood stage (2 – 5 years), later childhood stage (5-11 years).
However, this research is concerned with the later childhood stage of a child growth and development. The is a level in Nigeria educational system designed for training of the child in preparation for secondary school. This stage of a child’s growth and development is termed the “primary education stage”. This education stage, there are certain programmes a pupil education is exposed to which includes the right to primary education programme. As stated by the National Policy in Education (NPE; 2004), the objectives of primary education programme include.
- Developing in the child the ability to adapt to is changing environment.
- Inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and the ability to communicate effectively.
- Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the lives of the society.
- Laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking.
- Character and moral training and the development of sound.
- Providing basic tool for further educational achievement including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.
To achieve these objectives, every hand must be on deck in order to provide the child opportunities that will expose him or her to the even of life, this requires the active participation of government, teachers and the home environment (parent etc.) In the achievement of desired objectives.
Family is the smallest, most sensitive and important social system which is furnished and facilitated by a society as a larger social system. Shirina (2013) Family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant process in the family. Agulana (2000) prompted out that the family lays the psychological, moral and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child.
The child’s development is influenced by many other factors among which is his/ her genetic endowment and environmental forces operative around him/her (Mishr a and Bamba, 2012). The authors further stated that two agencies that most the nature and quality of children’s educational experiences development are the family and the school. Families vary greatly in structure and functioning. Variation exists also in school and in children themselves, given this diversity in families; there is a need to understand how children’s experiences within the family contribute to their educational outcome (Mishra and Bamba, 2012).
When families disintegrate, it is the children that are greatly affected as they often end up with intellectual, physical and emotional scars that persist for life (Anderson, 2002). Spending family time together has great benefits on children’s learning development. Most parents that practice family view this as an opportunity for family communication, bonding, child development and learning (Zabriskie and McCormick, 2001). The time parents devote to their children’ is a major for of investment that is linked with children’s will being and development (Gauthier et al, 2004). Family time is the perfect setting to naturally teach children how to do the right thing.
Structurally, family/ home is either broken or intact. A stable family creates a building block for children to progress throughout life. During block activities with a stable family, children increase their awareness of sentences, structures, linguistic, grammar and vocabularies by learning with parents (Lin, 2010). All of these practices are encouragers of early emergencies of reading and writing abilities. Children from stable homes are likely to get into fights, think about suicide, smoke, drink alcohol, use drugs and become sexually active at an early age (Eisenberg, et al, 2004). When parents separate, the children are left with no stability causing them to lose basic concept of childhood that may carry with them throughout life.
According to Hornby (2000), a home is the house, flat/ apartment that an upbringing of a child as the first environment of a family, whether it is a happy one or not. The home, which is the traditional nuclear family-father, mother and children, is the smallest unit and microcosm of the larger society. Operationally, a home is an apartment whose occupants are made of husband and wife as well as their children. When either of the parents is permanently absent on account of irreconcilable disagreement, the home is said to be broken.
A broken home is one that is not structurally intact as a result of divorce, separation of one parent and illegitimacy (Akomolafe and Olorunfemi Olabisi, 2011). Operationally, a broken home is that in which the husband and the wife are no longer living together as a result of irreconcilable disagreement. According to Frazer (2004), psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted broken home, divorce and parental deprivation such abnormal conditions of the homes, are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child he assets broken home are defined as one in which one of the parent loses his\her spouse by separation, divorce, desertion or single parenting (Cookline, 2006). Deborah (2002) sees broken homes as a situation where two spouse separate leaving the children to the hazard of the society, broken home is a home torn apart (Momoh, 2011).
Life in broken home can be stressful for both children and their parents. Most people from broken homes suffer from emotional problems such as depression, negative self-conception and aggression. Children from broken homes suffer from lack of concentration resulting to poor academic achievement and maladaptive behavior such as truancy, Lateness to school, examination malpractice and drug abuse. (Ikechukwu,2010)
Consequently divorce has to do with either-one of the partner quitting or saying ‘’bye bye” or his/her spouse as a result of infidelity, pride, superstition, religious disagreement in-law interferences, alcoholism and disrespect for one another or bulling (violence) According to Johnson (2006) twenty-nine percent (29%) of woman who had ever been married or have lived with a man in common law –relationship, had experienced of least one episode of violence / bullying by a husband; such relationship are more likely to end in diversity rather than peaceful atmosphere (Daily, 2004). When families break, it is the children that suffer. Children are important assets to the society. Every child is unique. Children are at the center of whole process of education and the all-round development of the personality of the child is the ultimate goal of education. Therefore, the learning experiences provided to him right from birth by the family contribute towards the achievement of this goal. However, across the globe, there are homes that are incomplete in one way or the other.
Unfortunately, the growth in the number of children born into broken homes is increasingly by day, especially in Nigeria (Nwachukwu, 2008).over the year, the investigation of the factor that influences academic performance of student have attracted interest and concern of teachers, counselors, psychologist, researchers and school administration in Nigeria (Wiseman, 2003). Broken home has more impact on the academic performance of students in Urban are than in remote villages. This is because those students/ pupils from broken homes in these cities are affected by change of school due to inadequate financial resources or poverty, poor study habit and low self-concept. Parents from broken homes are usually found in low status job because they enter work place early with few skills and little or no experience. They begin parenting in poverty and likely remain in poverty which has an impact on academic performance of their children (Dowd, 2007).
Consequently, academic performance is seen as the knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subjects. To indicate such achievement, test, scores or marks are assigned by the teachers. It is the schools evaluation of the classroom work on the basis of the grades awarded. Academic performance according to Akinboye (2004), is of two types that is positive and negative (poor) performance, habits, Family background, preservance, attitude, interest all these affects academic achievement in school. He concluded that if these variables are modified and attitude changed positively, then the level of individual’s academic performance would improve. Academic performance is an objective score of attainment after a specified instructional programme. Academic performance can be influenced by many factors, the impact family relationships plays on a child’s scholastic achievement alongside the development of the child cannot be over emphasized. The tension in the home, family discord or family instability all cumulatively produce an emotionally unpleasant atmosphere in the home. The relationship between the husband and wife, parent and children, relationship among siblings if not cordial, can result to conflict especially between husband and wife. If this persists, it can lead to a stretch of frequent quarrels and antagonism of both parties from time to time and thereby resulting to broken homes (Yara and Tunde-Yara, 2010).
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