This study entitled „ The Effect Of Parental Participation In Orphan And Vulnerable Child Education ( A Case Study Of Selected Schools In Chikun LGA in Kaduna State ‟ was intended to assessing the effect of parental active participation in Orphan and Vulnerable Children(OVC) in chikun LGA of Kaduna state. The main objectives of the study were to examine the extent to which parental commitment to school work had an influence on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in chikun Local government Area ; Determine the influence of parent’s involvement at home on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area; Examine the Influence of Parents educational background on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area; Determine the influence of the parent’s socio-economic status on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area to identify the influence of financial income of parents on girl child education in selected local governments areas of Kaduna state. Random sampling technique was employed, 180 respondents formed the sample size of the study, and structured questionnaire was used for collecting data from the respondents. The answers to the research questions were provided with tables of frequencies and percentages. It was found that there was no significant difference in the opinion of the teacher and parent on the Parental commitment to school work which have influence on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in the selected school of chikun local government areas in Kaduna state. On the relationship between parental commitments to academic work at home on the education of the Orphan and Vulnerable child there was significant relationship. Parental educational background was found to influence the orphan and vulnerable child. The Orphan and Vulnerable child education in the selected schools in chikun local government areas of Kaduna state is significantly influenced by the financial income status of parents. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that government at various levels should engendered economic empowerment of parents by providing employment opportunities, provision of credit facilities for farmers and other such avenues by which local population can be made to be more productive so as to enhance their economic standard of living. The schools should also organize orientation and training programmes through members of the PTA to create awareness among parents on the need for the orphan and vulnerable Child education.



1.1         Background to the Study

The home is the prime social institution for children. The child here requires care, proper attention and commitments from the family. In it, the primary shaping of human character takes place (Hurlock, 1974). Nwa-chill (1984) stated that the home/family as a primary social groups and the smallest social unit where the child‟s upbringing must begin since his birth. These upbringings develop the child‟s principles which grow, enlarge with it making the child‟s integral part. The personality development pattern is established in the young within the framework of his relationship with the parent. Parents constitute the chief societal influence with the child experience right from the child’s early years (Hurlock, 1974, p. 10).

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1990) emphasized that childhood is a period of entitlement as a result of the mental and physical susceptibility of the child. Consequently, the obligation of the family, primarily the parents, is significant in preparing the child for life as an individual in society. This responsibility is clear in Article 18 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) which asserts that both parents and in the absence of parents‟, legal guardians have the primary responsibility for the nurturing and development of the child.

In the home, the ideology of “motherhood” portrays mothers as being the ultimate caregivers. They invest most if not all of their time on their children which sometimes affects their job and role in the labour market. Although “stays at home moms” are common, women are seen as spending more time with children than men. They are commonly the nurturers of the children and support emotional growth and stability. Fathers now more than ever are spending more time with their children. Whereas in the past, fathers were the breadwinners and the mothers stayed at home to cook, clean and take care of children. The roles are starting to reverse. Fathers are participating more in parenting roles and taking on responsibilities such as bathing, dressing, feeding, changing diapers and comforting children (Rain and William, 2011, p. 7).

A parent is the child’s first and most important teacher in life and he or she is expected to play an active role in the child’s preschool journey because it is believed a parent and child should grow together and have a rewarding preschool experience. This follows subsequently by school life where academic performance is expected to be high. The parent is supposed to be supportive to the child in all aspects which include socially, physically, mentally and also emotionally (Epstein, 2001). Studies have indicated that children whose parents and/or other significant adults share in their formal education tend to do better in school. Some benefits that have been identified that measure parental involvement in education include; higher grades and test scores, long term academic achievement, positive attitudes and behaviours and more successful programs (Epstein, p.3).

Parental participation in pre-school activities includes a wide range of behaviours but generally refers to parents’ and family members’ use and investment of resources in their children’s schooling. These investments can take place in or outside of school, with the intention of improving children’s learning. Parental involvement at home can include activities such as discussions about school, helping with homework, and reading with children. Involvement at school may include parents volunteering in the classroom, attending workshops, or attending school plays and sporting events (Rain and William, 2011, p. 7).

The technique employed by parents in the treatment of the child serves as a formative factor on the child’s behaviour. Such techniques include incentives they offer, the

frustration they impose, their methods of control together with the character of their general attitude towards the child (Hurlock, 1974, p. 10), the other requirement the child needs is playing materials. Parent must provide some of demonstration and instructional materials. These materials are important because they help the child to be able to play, assist in concept building, promotion of discovery and creativity and enhance interaction with others as they play. These playing materials include the balls, track suits, toys, Picture books, clay ,paints, blackboard, beads, large blocks, medium blocks, flower title, concentric figures, dolls, nest of rings, cars, puzzles, pyramid, wooden animals, balls, pull toys, cars, trains, trucks, wagon, seesaw and slides etc (Frost, Wortham & Reifel, 2008).

According to Lundahl & Harris (2006), opined that effective parent participation, training and family interventions can change parents‟ attitudes and behaviours, promote protective factors, and lead to positive outcomes for both parents and children. So also Gadsden (2003) says greater parental involvement at early stage in children‟s learning, positively affects a child‟s school performance including higher academic achievement( as cited by Kotirde and Yonus 2014, p.1).

Kotride and Yanus (2014,para.2) also cited in his work researcher who opined that although parental participation is important through all the years of school, it changes as children develop; therefore, a student in middle or high school benefits from different parental participation than does an elementary school student. Whereas parental participation for quality education in elementary school may have focused on assisting a child with homework, in the middle or high school, the student‟s countless need might be assistance with determining what courses to take to ensure college or career readiness. Rowan-Kenyon (2009) opined “parents participation and encourage quality opportunity through their expectations for their children‟s educational quality and occupational

attainment which has was refereed to some authors as “academic socialization” and emphasized its importance in middle school.

Research clearly demonstrates that there is a direct relationship between parent engagement and children‟s language and reading skills, ability to relate to and interact with others, they may be peers or adults, and their feelings of positive self-image (Berla, Henderson & Kerewsky, 1989). Parental Participation in their child‟s education appears to be on a decline locally despite being associated with positive outcomes for students. From researches, parents‟ participation in children‟s education is largely considered a panacea for low student achievement. Nevertheless, it also sets the stage for students to acquire and demonstrate better social skills, improved behaviour, and adaptability skills in challenging situations.

Furthermore, articles 28 and 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) elucidate the rights of the child to education were for the purpose of development of the child‟s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to the fullest potential. Undoubtedly, as can be garnered from the aforementioned, the role of parents and/or guardians is inherent in a child‟s education.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

The 2008 Situation Assessment and Analysis on orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Nigeria carried out by the federal Ministry of women Affairs and Social Development reveals that in Nigeria, 17.5 million children are vulnerable children and most are orphans. Although it is customary in Nigeria for extended family and community members to care for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC), the capacity and resources of these individuals and households have been overextended by the growing number of OVC and the complexity of their needs. UNICEF, 2008 Assessment show that about 9.7 million children these growing up without one or both of their parents. Many more are at risk of separation, due to the impact of poverty, disability and such crises as natural disaster and armed

conflict. Children without parental care find themselves at a higher risk of discrimination, inadequate care, abuse and exploitation, and their well-being is often insufficiently monitored (Linus 2015).

Parents/ Guardian of the Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC) are often faced with unique challenges that hinder them from meeting the learners‟ needs. their involvement were influenced by so many factors ranging from ignorance, poverty, cultural factors, distance between the home and where the school is situated, utility, insufficient time, level of education of parent, order of priority, set home environment, opinion to voluntary work at school, time taken to respond to school activities for example buying instruction materials, attending parents meetings, conferences, sports ,Open House day, disciplinary cases and also discussing the academic progress of the child and value of education among others academically (Mwirichia, 2013. p 15). If the above needs are not attended to, there is a likelihood of child not performing well because he or she is not adequately supported. Insufficient parental involvement may lead to poor performance of the child leading to child deprivation.

These factors above have been found to foster negative involvement which limits parents from participating in the child‟s education. The persistence of this ugly trend if allowed to go on unabated, would definitely affect the fourth commitment of the National Priority Agenda (NPA) for vulnerable children in Nigeria in line with Nigerians Vision 2020 (NV20) and the fourth goal of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of education for all child by 2030. Hence, efforts must be intensified to ameliorate the situation, in order to facilitate meaningful national development. One of such ways to ensure the resolution of this ugly trend is to embark on a study that are aimed at identifying remote factors responsible for lack of parental support towards orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) education.

The Vulnerable Children especially the handicapped are regarded as liability in the society. Most handicapped children are neglected not only by the society but by their own immediate family members too. They are isolated in terms of educational provision and even where education is provided, only a few benefits from it. It is against this background that this study sets out to assess how parental involvement influence goes a long way to influence the orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) education in Kaduna state.

This study aims at assessing the effect of parental active participation in Orphan and Vulnerable Children(OVC) education and providing solutions to role of parents in Orphan and Vulnerable Children(OVC) education in chikun LGA of Kaduna state, Nigeria.

1.3        Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to critically examine the impact, role and effectiveness of a parent of in the life of an OVC education in Nigeria, specifically the geographical location of Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna State. The specific objectives include the following:

  1. Examine the extent to which parental commitment to school work have an influence on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in chikun Local government Area
  2. Determine the influence of parent‟s involvement at home on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area
  3. Examine the Influence of Parents educational background on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area
  4. Determine the influence of the parent‟s socio-economic status on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) education in Chikun Local government Area

1.4          Research Questions

  1. Parental commitment to school work; what impact does it have on OVC education in the selected schools in chikun local government areas of the state?
  2. Does parent‟s involvement at home have an effect on Orphan and Vulnerable Child‟s (OVC) education in the selected schools in Chikun local government areas of the state?
  3. To what extent does the parent educational background affect Orphan and Vulnerable Child‟s (OVC) education?
  4. What is the influence of the parent‟s socio-economic status on the Orphan and Vulnerable Child‟s (OVC) education?

1.5        Significance of the Study

Early intervention and prevention practices are greatly needed to facilitate the development of literacy skills and the prevention of academic, behavioral, and social problems among today‟s population of students. Parent participation may have an important role in helping young children experience later school success. For instance, Parents participation has been directly linked with academic achievement (Jeffries, 2012). However, further research is needed in this area to identify ways in which Parennt participation can be promoted and increased, particularly with Vulnerable children. Children who grow up in poverty are at higher risk for negative outcomes such as lower levels of cognitive development, academic achievement, and socio-emotional well-being (Allhusen et al., 2005).

As such the study would provide a feedback mechanism to parents‟ through which they would be able to judge themselves to see whether or not they are within the realm of the larger society as far as parental involvement of Child Education is concerned.

It would assist teachers and policy makers to have better understanding of the parent’s expectation about their children’s education and education Policy Makers with such information, which could facilitate planning and decision making, leading to the formulation of Child Education-Friendly Policies.

The study would equally be of help to fellow students who would want to embark on similar research work. It would provide them with the rudiment/elements of research report writing as well as relevant literature, which could serve as a starting point.

1.6 Scope of the Study

Childs‟ achievements in education are influenced by many people, processes and institutions. Parents, the broader family, peer groups, neighbourhood influences, schools and other bodies other bodies (e.g. churches, clubs) are all implicated in shaping children‟s

progress towards their self fulfilment. The children themselves, of course, with their unique abilities, temperaments and propensities play a central role informing and reforming their behaviour, aspirations and achievements. Also, there are several factors that may influence parental involvement in the modelling, cognitive and behavioural parent involvement dimensions. This study however, focused on parents‟ role construction because two factors which are educational background and socio-economic status of the parent which are likely to have a considerable influence on parental involvement. In addition, the study targeted parents of children in the higher primary school to senior secondary school. Due to the complexities involved, the in study will not focus on other factors which may affect parent involvement. It is delimited to parents with children in lower primary schools because children in this class can only read simple story books and will not understand the need for the research.

1.7 Definition of Terms

In this project the following terms will be used based on the following definitions.

Child: Nigeria defines an orphan as a child (0-17 years) who has lost one or both parents.

Vulnerable Child: A child is vulnerable if, because of the circumstances of birth or immediate environment, is prone to abuse or deprivation of basic needs, care and protection and thus disadvantaged relative to his or her peers (FMWA&SD 2008). A vulnerable child is one (that): with inadequate access to education, health and other social support, has a chronically ill parent, lives in a household with terminally or chronically ill parent(s) or caregiver(s), lives outside of family care (lives with extended family, in institution, or on street), is infected with HIV (FMWA&SD 2006).

An Orphan is a boy or girl child under the age of 18 years who lost one parent (maternal or paternal orphan) or both parents (total orphan). OVC: this means an Orphan and Vulnerable Child(ren)

Education: It is the aggregate of all the processes through which a person develops abilities attitudes and other forms of behaviour, which are positive in the society in which he/she grows-the development of personality.

Provider/Caregiver: Anyone who cares for OVC. These include parents, guardians, members of extended families and other home caregivers such as neighbours, community leaders. Also includes those providing or overseeing social services or making referrals such as community leaders, police officer, social workers, health care worker, teachers who have received training in how to address the needs of OVC.. For the purpose of this study Provider or caregiver will be seen as a parent.

Parents: A mature individual (Male or Female) who takes care of a child. He/she does not necessarily have to be the one who gave birth to the child.

Parental: this is the responsibility of parents/guardian t their child/ward as regards his or her education.

Participation: The act of taking part in an activity or events, in this case the upbringing and education of the child. It would will be used interchangeable with the word „‟involvement‟‟

Parental Involvement: Activities that parent engage in at home and at school and positive attitudes parents have toward their child‟s education, school, and teacher”

Poor Homes: Not having enough money for basic needs

Socio-Economic: Relating to, or involving a combination of social and economic factors.


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