INFLUENCE OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ON TEACHERS JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
This study investigated the Influence of Staff Development on Teachers Job Performance in Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria. Six (6) research questions and six hypotheses that were formulated guided the study. Related literature to the study were reviewed. The population of the study consisted of 216 class teachers, 80 principals and 60 supervisors from 227 secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria. The sampling techniques used was random sampling method. The instrument utilized was questionnaire coded “The Influence of Staff Development on Teachers Job Performance in secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis. 356 copies of questionnaire was administered and 200 copies were successfully retrieved. Data collected were analyzed using independent t-test inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed that teachers who participated in staff development programmes were more effective in their job performance than those who did not; in terms of knowledge of subject matter. Classroom management teaching methods and evaluation of students work. It was recommended amongst others that the Ministry of Education and State Secondary Education Board in Kaduna state should on a regular basis organize training programmes for teachers and such programmes should relate to subject contents, use of teaching aids, lesson preparation and classroom management.
1.1 Background to the Study
Teachers in Africa had virtues and lived exemplary behaviour. Teachers training was selective, rigorous and tedious, individuals who went through teacher training institution were themselves tough. With the spread of conventional types of secondary schools, the teachers training institutions ceased to attract the more able students and in some cases the curricula were watered down the types of teachers changed in a negative direction and so did than status and societal respect for the teaching profession. During the colonial period, more schools were established, literacy campaigns increased, but education in Africa has not progressed due to decline in teaching standards hence the need for improvement. The need for improvement also affected the teachers (Obanya, 1995-6). To achieve this, teachers must be fully equipped with knowledgeable ideas and skills. Institutions of learning in Nigeria are categorized as Government founded institutions, Government grants helps in the funding of educational institutions that include profit and nonprofit making.
In all this categories of schools, government is mandated to ensure that there are qualified teachers and compliance to the rules and regulations that govern the education system.
Teachers professional training in Nigeria is largely imparted during pre-services training in training institutions for three years to earn Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) level and four years at degree level specialized in a given subject area.
Lawal (2004) stated that teachers education as well as development program for teachers are important aspects of education processes that deal with the act of acquiring skills in teaching profession, they are essential exercises that enhance subject mastery, teaching methodology and classroom management. Aswathappa (2002) in his opinion says that successful candidates placed on the jobs need training to perform their duties effectively; they need to be developed in order to enable them to grow and acquired maturity of thought and action. He further suggested that training and development programmes must contain inputs that enable the participants to gain skills learn theoretical concepts and acquired vision to look into the distance future. In addition to this he said that such programmes should impact ethical orientation emphases on attitudinal changes, stress upon decision-making and problem solving abilities.
Archibong (2002) believed that training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee and should therefore constitute an ongoing process in any organization
Mgberkem (2004) stated that staff development programmer which he otherwise refers to as in service training or on the job training, implies a re-training given to an employee after he/she has been employed and deployed to work and has put up a number of weeks, months or years working. He added that in-service education also includes weekend courses, departmental interaction, committee findings and exchange of views on crucial educational issues. Eden (2003) stated that staff development does not only refer to teachers “in-service training, it also embodies a lot of other learning/training opportunities such as workshops, seminars, conferences, demonstration lessons, exchange visits and supervision by schooling heads.
Chukwurah (2004) added by saying that staff development also embodies short-term refresher courses, long-term refresher courses, part-time courses, distant learning in-house training and holiday sandwich programs
Mbipom (2000) said that staff development focuses on professional growth, therefore, the principals major function is that of facilitating maximum teacher participation in self-development and in-service educational programmes, sergrovanni and Elliot (2000) stated that staff development programmes for teachers are programmes design to help teachers to increase their capacity for knowing more about their work and to be able to use this know-how so that they can perform without direct supervision. Every successful teacher placed on the job therefore, needs to be trained and refreshed with new teaching skills, methods, techniques and professional abilities for managing classroom instruction and producing highly motivated, sensitive, conscientious and successful youths who will leave the secondary school with better educational achievement for higher education.
Moreover, in this age of information technology and usage of computer in all facet of life endeavor, the secondary school staff need development programmes to makes them aware of the usefulness of information technology in education and to be conversant with modern methods of teaching, new techniques of assessment and evaluation of students, classroom organization and management, lesson planning and presentation, co-curricular activities, preparation and utilization of instructional materials, students disciplinary actions among others.
A wide variety of re-training and development strategies are available. Griffin (1990) enumerated these strategies to include behavior modeling method, in-house talent training, and conference. Lectures, in-service or on-the-job training, programmed instruction, interactive video (newly emerging technique using computers and video technology) workshop, seminar, vestibule training, role playing and case discussion. Aswathappa (2002) said that a multitude of methods of training are used for retraining and development and he categorized them as on-the-job and off-the-job methods. He referred to on-the-job methods as methods that are applied in the workplace while the employee is actually working; off-in-the-job methods as methods that are used away from workplace. On the-job methods according to him include orientation training, job-institution training, job rotation coaching, internship and assistantships off the job methods include vestibule, lecture, special study, films, television, conference, case-study, role-playing simulative programmed instruction seminar and workshops.
Ekanem (2005) in her study found out that secondary school teachers produced from our colleges and universities are not properly equipped for the effective implementation of the secondary school programmes. The ill-equipped teachers according to her, find it difficult to perform creditable in the classroom, they cannot defend what they claim to know and may from time to time face disgraceful situation when faced with challenges. To take care of these inadequacies. The National Policy on Education (2004) pointed out that teachers education will continue to take cognizance of changes in methodology and in curriculum that no matter the efficiency of the pre-service training given to teachers, there will necessarily be areas of inadequacies; in-services education of teachers will therefore continue to fill those gaps.
The role of teachers, which range from co-curricular responsibilities to instructional, counseling, administrative supervisory and curriculum development responsibilities as well as their roles as psychologist, sociologists, social workers, baby-sitters, coaches, club advisers, guardians, mother and fathers to the children left in their care for about eight hours a day, a teacher training programme in which an initial teacher training is intimately and permanently linked with regular development programmes is advocated by some educationist. For instance, Chukwurah (2004) suggested that in-service education for teachers is essential because pre-service education is inadequate for the making of a complete and fully effective teacher as well as for continued success in teaching. Fullan (1991) explained that staff development continue to be a critical element that contributes to teacher effectiveness and improvement. Chukwurah (2004) said that education is a life-long process; no formal training in any teacher training institution can fully prepare a person for professional services. This means that, the much pre-service training can do for any teacher is to expose him to existing knowledge as he progresses in his profession. Where such a desire is found wanting according to him, a teacher’s knowledge begins to stagnate and sometimes becomes outdated, his performance becomes in effective and sometimes may endanger his position too, hence Guskay (1985) stated that staff development approaches, given time and support for full implementation can and do have direct, dramatic impact on teacher’s performance.
According to public service, training policy the objective of staff development in public service is to develop a sense of service to the public among public officers and fosters a sense of team spirit cooperation. As per mops standing orders chapter 1 j-3 1991:511, Government pursues a policy of ensuring that staff development is provided in a systematic manner for all levels of staff through training programmes based on identified needs. According to chapter 4 of standing order 1991:875 training of teachers follows procedures spelt out in chapter one section J and should attend induction and at least one performance improvement/skill enhancement course in every three years. However, this is not done as stipulated and in some cases, training is occasional. The scheme of service for teachers in Nigeria stipulated the training, and retraining requirements of teachers, their career path, professional development and job description. Teachers are expected to undergo mandatory induction, short and long term training course in specific courses and other professional development activities (Esc 2008.2). Some schools in Kaduna metropolis have experienced improvement in their performance in respect to quality of doing tasks arising out of training.
Good performing schools have motivated their employees in one way or another to enhance their performance through duty assignments on rotational basis, empowerment and training others have not done any of the above. When employees are trained and developed they feel you value them as part of the organization and in return to investment in training, this improve their commitment leading to improved performance at times. While defining work behavior Bruce and Pepitone (1999) argue that work behavior consists of the drive that moves us to do what to do. Armstrong (1998) argues that work behaviour is two prolonged i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic much as intrinsic work behavior is inside us, extrinsic constitutes factors outside us. Many factors motivate staff including pay increase, rewards, promotions etc. but training of employees play a big role in capturing the commitment of workers. Work behaviour is a concept that has been studies extensively but not much has been done in relation to training among secondary school teachers.
Work behaviour can be affected by training in various professions. The problem within teaching profession as noted by (Coombe 1970) is that on like those in legal, financial or medical careers, teachers do not often assess skills development opportunities of their choice, they are at the mercy of bureaucracies which they perceive to be irrational, unpredictable and unresponsive. (Coombe 1997:113) teachers hence feel themselves disempowered by their system and often by their own principals. They lack professional autonomy, pride, dignity and self-esteem. These affect the way they relate to work and each at work. Teachers need recognition of teachers roles, be sustained in it and this can be achieved through staff training especially school based staff development to produce regular properly planned professional support for teachers
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The abisma poor performance of secondary school students in Kaduna state in public examination in recent times has been a matter of concern to educational stakeholders in the state. It appears as if teachers have not avail themselves the usefulness of information technology in education and conversant with modern methods of teaching new techniques of assessment and evaluation of students ,classroom organization and management, lesson planning and presentation, preparation and utilization of instructional materials. Inspite the claim by present and successive civilian administration have been budgeting a substantial amount of their yearly budget on education for teachers development. Therefore theirs need to examine the influence of staff development programme on teachers job performance in Kaduna metropolis as the outcome will be of guide to policy makers and educational managers.
Kaduna state Education Board has on its staff list both professional and non-professional teachers. Most of the professional teachers have not received any form of in-service training after their pre-service training to update their skills and knowledge in a fast changing and technological driven world. Neither do the non-professional teachers, most of whom are not well versed in the art of imparting knowledge and are often found wanting in the discharge of their duties.
Education Administrators and school heads rarely organize in service training conference, seminars, refreshers courses for secondary school teachers to improve themselves in spite of their critical role in bringing about teachers effectiveness. Most teachers who undergo post qualification training do so on their own staff development programme are meant to help employees to increase their knowledge and perform their role effectively. Since the quality of any educational system depends to a great extent on its teachers, it imperative their provision are made for staff development programme for teachers to develop themselves. Given to the new educational challenges, there is a growing concern that the preparations of teachers need to be enhanced for them to be fully effective in the discharge of their duties. The problem of this study is to examine if teachers participation in staff development programmes relate to their job performance as the outcome would be of guide to educational planners and managers.
1.3 Research Questions
The following questions guided the study
- What are the impacts of staff development programmes on the performance of the teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- To what extent do the conferences influence job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- To what extent do symposia influence job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- To what extent do seminar influence job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- To what extent do workshop influence job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- To what extent do mentoring influence job performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
The following null hypotheses formulated and tested with t-test inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance guided the study.
H01: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teacher’s principals and supervisors on the influence of staff development on teacher’s job performance in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
H02: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teacher’s principals and supervisors on the impact of on job performance of teacher in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
H03: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teacher’s principals and supervisors in the impact of symposium on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
H04: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers principals and supervisors on the impact of seminar programmes on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
H05: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers’ principals and supervisors on the impact of workshop training in the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
H06: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers principals and supervisors on the impact of mentoring on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The study is set to achieve the following purposes:
- To determine the impact of in-service training on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
- To examine the impact of conferences on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
- To ascertain the impact of seminar on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
- To assess the impact of symposia on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
- To find out the impact of workshop on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
- To determine the impact of mentoring on the performance of teachers in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Based on the findings of the study, l believe that the results obtained can be used to guide management in handling information in the secondary sector of education to streamline and improve training procedures, policy formulation and implementation to appeal for support and lobbying by various stake holders to empower teachers in numerous under taking that affect their performance.
According to the conceptual framework, l expect students to benefit because if teacher get skills for bridging the performance gaps, they will be readily available to assist student in both academy and personal matters, which increases students’ performance and the teachers benefit from improvements of training because they may readily participate in decision making. Through this research, civic society buildings knowledge programmes can benefit from the pool of management knowledge and research to analyze the problems and identify practical solutions for performance improvement that can be achieved through empowerment of teachers lobbying and support in decision-making processes.
In respect to the study, the findings are useful to academicians by providing a basis of conducting further research and contributing to the body of knowledge. The finding of the study may create awareness the stakeholders them to understand the merit and the short comings of the adequacies in the prevailing policies in respect to teachers training so that they can provide necessary assistance. I hope that the study might create public concern about teachers so that Government and non-Governmental organizational, and individuals who work for the promotion of appropriate policies can address the problem basing their solutions on vivid, concrete and correct facts about the plight of secondary school teachers. I hope the study findings create more understanding and awareness to the researcher and all people about the training of teachers in secondary schools. The study gave an insight to the researcher on how teachers can be trained to cause performance improvement and generally draw attention to the weaknesses, opportunities and anomalies.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study.
The study was conducted in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis situated in the North Western part of Nigeria. The study mainly focuses on the influence of staff development on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis with special attention on procedures for selecting staff development programmes, forms of staff development techniques used in secondary school, teacher attitude towards the staff development programme provided in secondary school, effect of the development programmes on teachers commitment to work and the problems managers find in the effect to train employees aiming at providing means of designing appropriate policies.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
- Teachers have variety of ideas, perceptions and background knowledge when referring to staff development. This prior knowledge may affect the participants view and respond to the questions in the interview.
- Teachers may fail to respond to the questions candidly for fear that their school systems might be portrayed in a negative manner. Effects will be made to ensure that individual responses will be kept confidential.
- The interview may have taken place during a time in the year when the teachers had prior professional duties that made the interviews on additional burden to them.
- The study is limited to secondary schools within Kaduna metropolis Nigeria and the data should not be generalized to other people.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms.
Staff Development: Staff development of teachers is a process by which teachers review, renew and extend their commitment as change to the moral purposes of teaching; and by which they acquire basic knowledge, skills, planning and practice with children, young people and colleagues through each phase of their teaching lives. It is a process involving the generation of ideas that may be applicable to teaching, trying out these ideas, discussing in collegial contexts the viability and implications of the ideas as they emerge as potential practice, and adopting new practices that emanate from the ideas.
Teacher defines a teacher as one who (especially with young ones) builds up, instructs, trains and guides them for healthy growth and stable adult life. The teacher is also seen as a coach, he is also some who instructs others or provides activities, material and guidance that facilitate learning in either or informal situation. His job is beyond molding young lives, guiding youth, motivating students and general character training.
Teachers’ Effectiveness: Teachers’ effectiveness can also be seen as a degree to which a teacher achieves the desired effects upon students.