THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON THE DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS IN KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERTNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE
This study is carried out to examine the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior of students in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. This therefore has called for a need to find out the main causes of delinquent behavior among secondary school students and recommended ways by which delinquency can be reduced in the schools. The data for this study were collected from a sample population of one hundred and twenty respondents, thirty students from four different secondary schools comprising of both males and females. The instrument used was questionnaire and it contained twenty four questions which are on the causes of delinquent behavior among secondary school students. Four research questions were asked. The result of the study revealed that delinquent behavior among secondary schools students are caused by several factors. These include the parental socio-economic status, the influence of mass-media, home-related factors and the influence of parental occupational background. Likely solutions were proffered to ameliorate this social menace.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
There have been several reports and comments by the parents, school authorities and government, about delinquent behaviors being exhibited by adolescents in secondary schools all over the world.
The word delinquent according to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary see it as not a serious crime which is usually committed by young people (i.e. teenagers). These delinquent acts include; stealing, lying, truancy, fighting, absenteeism from school etc. It is therefore no doubt that these delinquent acts have affected the nation as a whole. According to the philosophy of Nigeria Education which is derived from main national objectives plan that there are…
Objectives in the building of the national development are as follows but few of them are mention, which are:
- A free and democratic society
- A just and egalitarian society
- United, strong and self-reliant nation.
- A great and dynamic economy
- A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens etc.
Osokoya (1987) remarked that a nation that has her adolescent as delinquent cannot achieve all the above national objectives. The relationship between the parents’ socio-economic status and delinquency cannot be over-emphasized. This relationship really exists among the adolescents of various academic institutions. Following the idea of Manweber, which states that the socio-economic status is usually measured by the wealth a man possesses. For instance, assets like cars, buildings, investments etc. All these including the job or business which a man does are used to assess a person’s level of socio-economic standard, level or status.
In studying the socio-economic status of any given individual, sociologists have therefore often relied on socio-economic indices, such as occupation, level of education and income. Based on all or one of these indicators, the various socio-classes are usually organized into hierarchal structure.
Students from high socio-economic status enjoy better living conditions. That is, they are provided with the necessary things of life such as good food, proper clothing, library, decent and comfortable accommodations and other facilities that can aid academic achievements. Also students from middle class are fairly provided with the above facilities that can also promote academic performance. But on the contrary, students from the low socio-economic class are provided with little or none of these facilities or materials mentioned above, of which will lead to the students performing below expectation and thereby generates into delinquent behaviors in order to survive.
Similarly, parental socio-economic status could embrace the following like the income of the parents, the educational background, the number of wives being acquired by the father, the type of home the parents live in, inherited properly such as land, buildings, etc. Also possession of electrical gadgets such as television, stereo video, refrigerator, air conditioner etc. All these consist of what could be regarded as the parental socio-economic status.
Other factor influencing delinquent behavior includes broken homes, peer group, the mass media, the school related factor, parent’s type of occupation and so on. It is due to these summed up factors and its negative effect on our society as a whole that raised our interest on this topic. The rate at which our adolescents take to delinquent acts in an alarming rate has to be checked. The solution has to be suggested in order to erase or reduce to a reasonable rate in our secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The fallen standard of morality at home, school and the general society is an issue that draws a lot of concern to various individual who have the various sectors of human organization in mind. This is because “sin is a reproach to every nation” This issue draws a lot of concern to every responsible individual in the society. It is common to see youngsters in the school and society break a constituted authority rules, right from the home and graduated into the wider society. This propels the researchers to set machinery in place to investigate the root of such unwanted behaviour in our society and the nation in general this is because if nothing is done about it, our highly esteemed African Culture and values will be thrown in to the trash by the younger generation, making our society to be lawless and our streets will eventually turn to a place of vagabonds.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the incidence of Delinquency behavior among adolescent students in the selected secondary school in Kaduna south local government area of Kaduna state.
Specifically the research work seeks:
- to find out some causes of delinquent behavior in Kaduna south Municipal
- to establish a relationship between socio-economic status and delinquent behavior among secondary school students in Kaduna south Municipal Council
- to establish the impact of mass-media on delinquent behavior of secondary school students.
- to investigate if home-related factors and influence of parental occupations leads to delinquent behavior of secondary school students.
- to find out if the problem in some selected secondary school is peculiar to other areas.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions have been formulated to guide the study;
- What are the major causes of delinquency in secondary schools?
- What is the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior among secondary school students?
- What are the roles of mass-media as a factor of delinquent behavior among secondary school students?
- How do the home-related factor and the influence of parental occupation affect the delinquent behavior of secondary school students?
- How can the problems of delinquent behavior among secondary school students be minimized?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The study will test the following null hypotheses at the 0.05 significant levels.
Ho1= There is no significant difference in the delinquent behavior of students from high socio-economic status and low economic status.
Ho2= There is no significant difference in the behavior of students who are exposed to the influence of Mass-Media and those who are not exposed.
Ho3= There is no significant deference in the acquisition of delinquent behavior of students from broken homes and those from stable home.
Ho4= There is no significant difference in the relationship between the parents’ occupation and delinquent behavior of students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study w be was based on the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the behavior of students in secondary schools. It will help the teachers, parents, educational psychologist and administrators to understand better, why some students engage in delinquent acts.
It will also give suggestions on how parents and teachers could improve their social relationship with the students so as to provide more effective and realistic direction on the cultivation of accepted code of conduct and behavior which are more appropriate and conforming within the society in question.
It will also help the government to as well know the causes and effect of delinquent behaviors among adolescent students with specific reference to parental socio-economic status and hence plan adequately for educational improvement.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is primarily concerned with the parental socio-economic status and its effect on delinquent behavior. The study is carried out in Kaduna south Municipal Council in Kaduna State. The study covers the causes, effect of mass-media, broken homes and socio-economic status of parent. The study covers four selected secondary schools within Kaduna Municipal Council. There will be no personal interview.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Juvenile: A young child or young person who is not yet old enough to be regarded as an adult.
Delinquency: Maladjusted behavior that breaks constituted authority rule.
Juvenile Delinquency: Vandalism and other criminal behavior that is committed by young people who are not old enough to be legally considered as adult.
Adolescents: Young people who are no longer children but have not yet become adults.
Statutory: Is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city or country.
Truancy: The act or condition of being absent without permission especially from school.
Proactive: Controlling a situation by making things happens rather than waiting for this to happen and then reacting to them.
Reactive: showing a reaction or responses.
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