1.1 Background of the Study
Worldwide, students experience social, personal and academic problems at schools and at homes. The problems include living in distressed family, for example, where parents are separated or divorced, where conflicts occur and where disease such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Deficiency Syndrome(HIV/AIDs) are rampant. These problems negatively affect the students in their school endevours.
The problem of Adolescents in the Schools
Robinson (1991) states that ‘’Social experimentation in drugs and sexual relationship have some causalities among students”. A good number of student engage in drug, prostitution, truancy, indiscipline and other misdemeanours (Robinson 1991). The outcome of the above problems is summarized by Lines and Davies (2003), who view the school as bee hive of activities where teenage difficulties and peer group tension arise. In the light of these problems, schools should be more involved in conducting students’ need assessments and developing comprehensive guidance and counselling services (Kameam, et al 1980). Related to the above is Elkind’s (1990:17) argument that schools should move into a leadership role in dealing with the emotional and family problems of their students.
Nziramanzaga (2009) posits that because of many pressures imposed on the families, parents tend to have little time with their children to give them the necessary guidance. The parents expect the school to provide solutions to their children’s indiscipline in secondary schools.
Paisdly (2001) calls for schools guidance and counselling to be restructured so that they become responsive to the existing social economic and political realities within today’s complex and diverse society.
Research has demonstrated high prevalence of risk taking behaviour among adolescents who attend school in Kachia Local Government Areas Kaduna State. Okechukwu Obianugu (2010). Students in the adolescent age bracket experience rapid growth and changes, physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially (Robinson, Linderman 1991) found that rapid developmental changes occur at a time when environmental stress occur. For example parents and teachers pressures on young people to excel in school, peer pressure to experiment with drug, conflict in families or poor relationship, loneliness and pressure to make career choices are at peak.
According to Gysbers, N.C. & Henderson, P. (2001) it seems as though many educators take it for granted that students know how to succeed in life, when in fact many never learn about attitude, behaviours and other factors that contribute to success in life; and guidance and counselling services to student to cultivate attitude and behaviours leading to success in life is very important. Otwell and Mullis (1999) believe that guidance and counselling is important in schools because it increases behaviour related to achievements such as studying effectively.
In rural areas of some of the villages in Kachia Local Government Areas Kaduna State, for example, many students drop out of school as a result of poor performance in academic grade and failure to adjust to high school learning situations. A student who loses confidence in his or her ability and who devalues himself lacks concentration and this leads to academic failure. Rectondoki,(2001).
Guidance Counselling and the Domains of Learning
The provision of guidance and counselling should address the following three domains of learning, namely: Personal Social, Vocational career and educational guidance and counselling.
Personal social guidance and counselling deals with self identity, social skills relationships, conflicts resolution, personal loss and other problems; Vocational career counselling includes information about course, requirements, post secondary or tertiary institutions, career path, planning, potential employers and job hunting; Education guidance and counselling provides information about educational opportunities beyond schools; promotion and achievement, learning strategies and studies and test taking skills. (Graham- Migel 1999) reiterated that comprehensive school guidance and counselling services address the development need of students in secondary schools in the three domains of learning mentioned above. Thus the most function of school guidance and counselling services is to discover their abilities, interests and needs, thereby helping them to make effective adjustment to school life and to give shape to their future plans. Rutondoki (2001) states that complete guidance and counselling should be continuous. Counselling should begin when the student enters school and should carry that student into adult life. The counselling should be preventive in the sense that counselee receive help in order to avoid certain problems.
The present study sought to access whether guidance and counselling services in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State are as effective as expected.
1.2 Statement of the Problems.
It has been noted that students face a number of problems during adolescence (Amakos 1990. Since secondary school students are in the adolescent stage, the need for effective guidance and counselling becomes compelling. Thus there is need to establish the importance of services from schools counsellors and students.
In addition, the view of the school as a context where students experience a number of problems (Line in Daries 2003) as well as the increased number of problems students face in modern society have prompted the researcher to investigate the importance of school guidance and counselling services in Kachia Local Government Areas Kaduna State’s secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purposes of the study are:
- To examine the adequacy and quality of guidance and counselling personnel in Government secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- To investigate the adequacy of guidance and counselling facilities in secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- To examine the guidance and counselling services carried out in secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- To find out the factors hindering effective guidance and counselling service, in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is envisaged that the study will benefit school counsellors, students, researchers, policy makers and administrators by making relevant information available about guidance and counselling programmes. It will help school counsellors with information and criteria with which to evaluate their guidance and counselling services. It will help parents to know the effect of guidance and programmes in shaping the future of their children. It will also provide the information needed by students in order to weigh the value of the guidance and counselling services which the school offer them.
1.5 Research Questions.
The following research questions were put forward to guide the study.
- Do secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State have adequate and qualified school guidance and counsellors?
- Are the guidance and counselling facilities in secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State adequate in number and quality?
- What are the guidance and counselling services provided by secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- What are the obstacles to effective guidance and counselling services in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
1.6 Scope of the study:
The research limits the topical coverage of the study to the assessment of guidance and counseling services offered within secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study:
This research had several limitations:
The study was primarily limited by its small sample size. A larger sample size with more diversity would have benefited the results. Therefore to generalize the results for larger area the research should have involved more participants at different levels.
The literature seems not to have established proper causal relationship using the instrument of questionnaire. A greater deal of information would have been obtained with participant observation method. The researcher was constrained by both time and finance.
However, much effort has been put into it to make the best within the limit of available time and funds.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Assessment: Euvrard, G. (1996) describe assessment as any effort to gather, analyse and interpret. The study sought to access whether guidance and counselling services in the schools are as effective as expected.
- Evaluate: Kansayara (2005) defines it as the judgement of the quality of something. In this study it is the making of judgement about the worthiness or importance of school guidance and counselling services.
- Importance: Rund ell (2002) describes it as working well and producing the desired result. In this study it is the extent to which the guidance and counselling personnel’s in secondary schools in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State are accomplishing desired results.
- Guidance: Rund ell (2002) defines guidance as advice about what one should do or how one should behave. In this study, it is a process of assisting individuals to help themselves through their own effort, to discover and develop their own potentials for personal fulfillment and social usefulness.
- Counselling: Rund ell (2002) defines it as advice and help that is given to someone experiencing problems. In this study counselling means helping students to help themselves.