May 26, 2022 Comments Off on INSECURITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OpenBook
THE IMPACT OF INSECURITY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The study examined The Impact of Insecurity on Socio-Economic Development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Objectively, four research questions were formulated. The survey design was used in the study. The sample size was 100. 100 questionaires were administered to the respondents, but 94 questionaires were found valid. The data gathered were analysed using simple percentage and mean. The findings revealed that: inter-communal political violence, inter-personal violence, gang violence, and economical-motivated violence are the nature of insecurity and socio-economic development; political-based violence, weak security system, unemployment/poverty, and organized violent group are the causes of insecurity; poverty or hunger, underdevelopment, drug abuse/kidnapping/armed robbery, and brain drain are the impacts of insecurity on socio-economic development; equipment of security agencies, creating employment, maintain law and order, and establishment of community policing are the current security measures in the protection of life and properties in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendations given that the real panacea for solving insecurity challenge in Nigeria is for government to accelerate the pace of development. Development in this context consists of creating an economy with relevant social, economic and physical infrastructure for business operations and industrial growth, to provide gainful employment, high level of educational facilities, and medical care for the people; Governments at all levels should ensure that rising poverty indices are reversed and a realistic social security program is pursued and systematically implemented to ensure that the populace meets their basic needs.
1.1 Background of the Study
Insecurity, especially internal is not a problem that is unique to Nigeria. Other countries both developing and developed face the challenge. The difference however between some of them and our country Nigeria is how they manage the threat. (Albinus, 2016) gave an insight into the precarious state of Nigeria nation by saying that within the last few year, heightened social insecurity in Nigeria has arguably fuelled the crime rate, living unpalatable consequences for the nation economy and its growth. The socio-political and economic landscape in Nigeria has been blighted by the endemic twin evil of crime and violence. The abysmal failure of successive administration in Nigeria to address challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequitable distribution of wealth among ethnic nationalities, ultimately resulted to anger, agitation and violent crimes against the Nigerian state by some individuals and groups. Such crimes includes militancy, kidnapping, bombing, armed robbery, destruction of government properties among others (Albinus ibid). Nigeria is sitting on a keg of gunpowder that can explode if things are not put right within the shortest time.
The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria specifically states that “The security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government”. Unfortunately, government on its constitutional responsibility has failed to provide a secured and safe environment for lives, properties and the conduct of business and economic activities. The alarming level of insecurity in Nigeria generally, has fuelled the crime rate and terrorists attacks in different parts of the country, leaving unpalatable consequences for the nation’s economy and its growth. To address the threat to national security and combat the increasing waves of crime, the federal government in the 2013 budget made a huge allocation to security, and the national assembly passed the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2016 (Ewetan, 2017). Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high, and a confirmation of this is the low ranking of Nigeria in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2016). Despite the plethora of security measures taken to address the daunting challenges of insecurity in Nigeria, government efforts have not produced the desired positive result. This has compelled the Nigerian government in recent time to request for foreign assistance from countries such as USA, Israel, and EU countries to combat the rising waves of terrorism and insecurity. Amidst the deteriorating security situation in the country, Nigeria is also confronted with daunting developmental challenges which pose serious threat to socio-economic development. These developmental challenges include endemic rural and urban poverty, high rate of unemployment, debilitating youth unemployment, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating exchange rate, high inflation rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, very large domestic debt, and rising stock of external debt (Ewetan, 2017) The United Nations Children’s Fund, reports that every day, Nigeria loses about 2,300 under-five year olds and 145 women of childbearing age, making the country the second largest contributor to the under-five and maternal mortality rates in the world. A greater proportion of the population do not have access to pipe borne water, health care facilities, electricity and affordable quality education. Although Nigeria is a signatory to the UN resolution on the MDG goals the attainment of these goals by 2015 remains elusive and doubtful (Ewetan, 2017).
The failure of economic growth in most developing and developed countries of Latin America and Africa, in the late 1970s, to deliver corresponding social goods and solve problems of unemployment, poverty, disease, hunger, illiteracy and ever increasing crimes and wars, necessitated the new thinking, and redefinition of development from economic growth centered perspective to human centered approach (Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2017). In this light Chandler (2015) sees development as a broader concept that recognizes psychological and material factors that measure human well-being. Development therefore is a multifaceted phenomenon and man centered. It is the process of empowering people to maximize their potentials, and develop the knowledge capacity to exploit nature to meet daily human needs (Rodney, 2018; Nnoli, 2019; Ake, 2020).
According to Beland (2005) insecurity is a state of fear or anxiety due to absence or lack of protection. Achumba et al (2017) defines insecurity from two perspectives. Firstly, insecurity is the state of being open or subject to danger or threat of danger, where danger is the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury. Secondly insecurity is the state of being exposed to risk or anxiety, where anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some misfortune. These definitions of insecurity underscore a major point that those affected by insecurity are not only uncertain or unaware of what would happen but they are also vulnerable to the threats and dangers when they occur. In the context of this research, insecurity is defined as a breach of peace and security, whether historical, religious, ethno-regional, civil, social, economic, and political that contributes to recurring conflicts, and leads to Quantum destruction of lives and property.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Insecurity challenges can be traced to the early years of military rule when large quantities of arms were imported into the country for the use of the military, during and after the Nigerian civil war, some of which got into the hand of the civilians. Soon after the civil war these arms were used by civilians and ex-military men for mischievous purposes such as armed robbery, arm banditry etc. however they were also the army of unemployed youths, some of whom lost their job during the civil war.
The level of insecurity assumed dangerous dimensions in the prolonged years of military rule beginning from 1970 during which people procure arms and light weapons for personal defense. Some of these arms and light weapons got into the hands of unemployed youths who used them for deviant purposes, Many scholars have identified several causes of under- development and insecurity in Nigeria which are inimical to socio-economic and national development (Ali, 2017; Okorie, 2016; Jega, 2018; Salawu, 2019; Onyishi, 2016; Ezeoba, 2016; Lewis, 2018). These causes have been classified into external and internal causes. In Nigeria the internal causes of insecurity pose major challenge to socio-economic development than the external causes of insecurity.
This research therefore focuses on the internal causes of insecurity in Nigeria. These causes include Ethno religious conflict, politically based violence, systematic and political corruption, Ethno based violence, Pervasive Material Inequalities, Unfairness, Unemployment/Poverty, Organized violent groups, Weak Security System, Porous Borders and Terrorism.
While existing studies have shown that insecurity gives room to bad governance (Salawu, 2019), only a few or none of recent research have attended to the perceived insecurity on development in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Therefore, this study is imperative as it focuses on assessing issues relating to how people have been coping with the insecurity and its attendant influences on the development of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It is also pertinent to answer questions on how to eliminate or at least reduce political insecurity and its effect on development in Nigeria particularly within the local context of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of insecurity on socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Other specific objectives are to:
Examine the nature of insecurity and socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Identify the causes of insecurity in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Find out the impact of insecurity on socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Analyze the current security measures in the protection of life and properties in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions formulated from the objectives of the study:
What is the nature of insecurity and socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
What are the causes of insecurity in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
What are the impacts of insecurity on socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
What is the current security measures in the protection of life and properties in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The presence of insecurity in any environment constitutes threat to lives and properties, hinders business activities, and discourages local and foreign investors, all of which stifles and retards socio-economic development of a country. So embarking on a study of this nature is to find out the impact of insecurity on development, the perception of people on security/insecurity in their area, and the solution to the problem of insecurity affecting the society.
This study is therefore significant in the sense that it provides information for academic purposes and also compliments other previous studies on the same subject and brings about the magnitude of influence; insecurity has on development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Nigeria as a country.
It will also help to improve the insecurity problem affecting development, and the study would provide them with information on ground which can help redevelop better security strategies and policies.
This research work establishes the relationship between insecurity and development.
In addition, the information that comes from this study, will provide useful information for policy formulators in Nigeria concerning the issue of insecurity,
Although there has been many studies carried out on the nature of insecurity in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, however this study will point out some of the loop holes affecting the success of security.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is on the impact of insecurity on the socio-economic development in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Impact: effect or influence
Insecurity: is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.
Socio-Economic Development: the process of social and economic development in a society.