This study examined “An Evaluative Study of Audio-Visual Resources in Federal Polytechnic Nasarrawa Library.” Purposefully, the study assessed concept of audiovisual resources, users of audiovisual resources in academic libraries, types/kinds of audiovisual materials in academic libraries, functions of audiovisual materials in academic libraries, challenges in the use of audiovisual materials in academic libraries, and strategies for solving the challenges associated with the use of audio-visual resources. The researcher used research design survey to carry out the study. The sample size of the population was 136 representing 54.4% of the total population (250). So 136 questionnaires were administered to 136 respondents. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage. From the research, the findings revealed that the types of audiovisual resources available in Federal Polytechnic, Nasarrawa are video/TV set, film and internet, slide, maps and posters, the function and usefulness of audiovisual resources in Federal Polytechnic, Nasarrawa is that they make learning more interesting for the students, the challenge in the use of audiovisual in Federal Polytechnic, Nasarrawa is improper management and maintenance, the strategy that can be adopted to overcome the challenge is the library should be funded adequately for appropriate acquisition of A/V resources. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendations given, such as: library users should avail themselves of the available audiovisual resources in their library as they add clarity to topics and makes abstract topics less vague; the library should also encourage individuals, NGO’s or government who are interested in supporting the library to donate audiovisual resources … .
1.1 Background to the Study
Academic libraries are located in tertiary institutions like universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. These libraries are an integral part of these institutions of higher learning and are indispensable instrument for intellectual development. Budd (2008) defined academic library as a library which serves an institution of higher learning, such as a college or a academic. Akporhonor (2005) defined academic libraries as libraries attached to tertiary institutions such as universities, polytec hnic institutions, colleges of education, colleges of agriculture, colleges of technology and also research institutes. According to Ekere (2006) academic libraries in Nigerian context, include all libraries attached to universities, polytechnics, colleges of agriculture, colleges of education, military institutions like the Nigerian defence academy, the war college, Nigerian institute for strategic studies and other post-secondary institutions. According to him academic libraries can be grouped into academic libraries and college libraries. Academic libraries are attached to a academic while college library are attached to other tertiary institutions. The main purpose of an academic library as stated by Aina (2004) is to support the objectives of an academic environment in the areas of learning, teaching, research, and service. This cannot be achieved without the provision of adequate facilities in academic libraries. Ajibero (2007) sees the academic library as the heart of the academic, polytechnic or college of education and no other non-human factor is closely related to the quality of education. Academic libraries collect a variety of materials for preservation and use by the library patrons. These resources include not only traditional print-on-paper media like books, journals, and newspapers, but also audiovisual resources like records, audiocassettes, video cassettes, maps, microfiches, CD-ROMs, photographs, computers, globes, art works, computer software, PowerPoint presentations etc.
The concept of audiovisual aids is not new and can be traced back to seventeenth century when John Amos Comenius (1592–1670), a Bohemian educator, introduced pictures as teaching aids in his book Orbis Sensualium Pictus (“picture of the Sensual World”) that was illustrated with 150 drawings of everyday life (Aggarwal, JC, 2009). Similarly, Jean Rousseau (1712–1778) and JH Pestalozzi (1746–1827) advocated the use of visual and play materials in teaching (Akram, S.; Sufiana; Malik, K. 2012). More recently, audiovisual aids were also widely used during and after World War II by the armed service. The successful use of picture and other visual aids in U.S armed forces during World War II proved the effectiveness of instructional tools (DeBernardes, A; Olsen, EG 1948).
The term audiovisual is made up of two words, audio and visual. Audio materials are materials that appeal to the sense of hearing while the visual materials appeal to the sense of sight. Audiovisual materials are designed to assist teachers in teaching so as to enhance students’ understanding of the subject content. They possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching. They provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Moreover, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered effective presentation of a given topic. Audiovisual materials generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful.
Audiovisual resources, according to Dike (2008), are those materials that do not basically depend upon reading to convey meaning and may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, or through the sense of sight as in visual resources or through a combination of both senses. Prensky (2006) defines audiovisual as non-book materials such as records, tapes, slides, filmstrips and video tapes, while Norton (2006) defines audiovisual in education as the use of supplementary teaching aids such as recordings, transcripts, tapes, motion pictures and video tapes- radio and television and computers to improve learning. Keena (2007) sees audiovisual materials as items that are not completely dependent on printed word to transmit meaning as they use audio and visual formats. Most, but not all, audiovisual materials require some sort of display equipment to be used. Nwoji (2007) defines audiovisual resources as that field of human expression that employs visual and auditory aids such as filmstrips, slides, projectors, television, pictures, radio and a variety of graphic arts to teaching and learning. Audiovisual resources as seen by different authors simply mean that they are non-book materials that depend solely on sensory experience. These materials make use of sense of hearing, sense of sight or a combination of both senses in transmitting knowledge.
There are three types of audiovisual resources and they include: Audio resource; these include the most common types like tape player which plays tapes and cassette, and radio which is a stand-alone device. These are less expensive and more available, portable and make use of either electricity or battery. Most times they are combined in one machine as in the three-in-one (radio-cassette recorder- record player) and two-in-one combination. They are also available in record and cassette form and can be used independently or in combination with visual materials. Audio resources can be used in any subject but mostly in subjects that rely heavily on aural component. For example: proper pronunciation and intonation of a given language can be recorded from a native speaker who may not be available in person to participate in an interview. These materials also play an important role in diagnostic and remedial work. Visual resources; these come in variety of forms which could be projected or non-projected. The projected materials require a piece of equipment containing a lens system and light source by which the image is projected onto the wall or screen; these include slides and transparencies. Examples of those requiring no equipment are real objects, chalkboard, graphs, maps, cartoons, posters, pictures, models, photographs, drawing and art works. Audiovisual combination; these make use of both sound and visual senses. They include the following: sound recordings, films, video, television, and dramatization, filmstrips and multimedia computer programme.
Uzokwe (2006) grouped audiovisual resources into non-projected materials like charts and flat pictures, projected materials like slides, transparencies and filmstrips and audio materials such as radio, records and record players while Obi (2006) grouped audiovisual resources into printed media, three dimensional objects, graphic arts, photographs, electronic media and projectors.
The use of audiovisual resources is based on the principle that teaching can be greatly improved by these resources because they can make learning memorable. These materials enhance teaching and learning, especially subjects that are abstract to the student. Blotiner (2008) states that best results are achieved when a variety of audiovisual resources and printed materials are used together in teaching and learning.
This study however will throw more light on the evaluation of audio-visual resources and services in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa.
Historical Background of Federal Polytechnic Nasarrawa
The Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa was established on 1st July, 1983 by the Federal Government of Nigeria. The establishment of the Polytechnic was predicated on the Government’s desire to transform the society technologically. This objective is contained in the Federal Polytechnic Decree No.33 of 1979 (as amended to Federal Polytechnic Amendment Decree No. 28 of 1987), which goes thus:
- To train people to acquire technical and vocational skills which are needed for the economic and social development of Nigeria especially in the fields of agriculture, industry and commerce;
- To train and provide people who could improve the quality of the environment by applying their acquired knowledge in finding solution to our environmental problems for the convenience of members of the society;
- To provide opportunity for our students to be able to appreciate the standard of technology in all its complexities; and
- To provide opportunities for professional training in engineering and other relevant technologies.
An important landmark in the development of the Polytechnic was the initial accreditation of all programmes in 1985 and commencement of Higher National Diploma (HND) programmes in Business Administration and Management. Accountancy, Secretarial Studies as well as Town and Regional Planning also commenced HND programmes in the Year 1986. Subsequently, new programmes and departments were introduced and accredited for the National Diploma and Higher National Diploma respectively. In addition to the regular programmes, the Polytechnic has successfully introduced Part-time Diploma and Higher National Diploma as well as Interim Joint Matriculation Board (IJMB) programmes.
At present, there are six (6) Schools and 28 departments. In addition, processes for the commencement of new Diploma programmes in Mechatronics Technology, Foundry and Rail-tract Technology, as well as Higher National Diploma in Chemical Engineering Technology, Civil Engineering Technology, Electrical/Electronics Engineering Technology (Instrumentation option), and Degree programmes are now in progress.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The primary purpose of academic libraries is to support teaching, learning and research in ways consistent with, and supportive of, the institution’s mission and goals. In addition, library resources and services should be sufficient in quality, depth, diversity, and currency to support the institution’s curriculum. Audiovisual resources contribute to research, teaching and learning at all levels. The use of audiovisual resources is important in teaching and learning process. It helps in stimulating interest and making learning permanent when used as instructional materials. It offers researchers a variety of materials in their search for information. It also helps libraries in the preservation and dissemination of information.
Despite the contributions of audiovisual resources in teaching and learning, research conducted in this area indicates that there is inadequate use of these resources for teaching and learning process. This might be as a result of lack of availability of these resources in academic libraries in Federal Polytechnic Library, Nasarrawa. More so, many lecturers and students seem ignorant of the potentials of audiovisual resources and how to use them to achieve their purpose. Students as well may not identify the value of audiovisual resources in their studies. Education in Nigeria is facing a critical challenge in meeting new demands of 21st century, with its ever increasing inadequate library facilities, resources, epileptic power supply and insufficient funding. Inability of academic library to meet with the increasing demands of information needs of students, researchers and lecturers leads to a drastic fall in the education as the school finds it difficult to fulfill its curriculum requirements. This failure gives rise to poor quality of graduates inversely undermining the productivity of the nation as unskilled manpower and poor material resources are in the nation. Consequently, the nation suffers the problems of this abnormality, there is therefore an urgent need to bring this problem to an end.
In view of this, the researcher sought to find the problem that hampers effective use of these resources in academic libraries like Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa, since according to Ifidon (2007) the primary role of a academic library is to properly and effectively meet the information needs of its users, which include staff, students, researchers and the parent organization.
1.3 Research Questions
This study will attempt to answer the following research questions.
- What are the types of audio-visual resources available in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa?
- What are the functions and usefulness of the audio-visual materials in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa?
- What are the challenges in the use of audio-visual materials in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa?
- What are strategies that can be adopted by the library staff to address the challenges associated with the use of audio-visual resources in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives or purpose of the study is to evaluate audio-visual resources and services in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa by achieving the following:
- To find out the types of audio-visual resources available in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa.
- To examine the functions and usefulness of the audio-visual materials in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa.
- To find out the challenges in the use of audio-visual materials in Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa.
- To provide strategies that can be adopted by the library staff to address the challenges associated with the use of audio-visual resources in the Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The results of this study will be beneficial to the government, tertiary institutions, lecturers, librarians, the users and other researchers.
This result will help in creating awareness to the uses of audiovisual resources in academic libraries and on the level of provision of audiovisual resources in academic libraries, thereby exposing the users to different types of audiovisual resources available for use in academic libraries.
The government will be exposed to the need of audiovisual resources in academic libraries, thus, they will empower the products of our educational system to fit well into the modern industrial system through acquisition of digital literacy by the use of audiovisual resources, they will therefore provide enough funds to parent organization of the libraries in order to meet the financial demand of A/V resources for effective teaching and learning process. It will also help the institute on in planning their budget and allocating funds to the library for their collection development which includes A/V resources.
The tertiary institutions and the libraries are expected to benefit as it will expose them to the advantage of A/V resources over print forms and the areas of their lack in the libraries. They will therefore support the libraries in creating awareness of their use to users in the libraries and provision of needed resources.
The librarians will also benefit from this study as it will motivate them to improve on their duties and intellectual development; thereby acquiring the necessary skills to guide their use. The operation of some of these resources gives the librarian an opportunity for personal training and development.
Finally, this work will expose users to potentials of audiovisual resources thereby making them not to solely rely on print materials but also to use A/V resources which enhances their learning, and exposes them to the world around them. The lecturers will benefit as they are exposed to the benefits of using audiovisual in their lecture; they will therefore, improve on their classroom activities by using A/V resources as this will help them with little effort to express their ideas to students understanding of the lectures. It will also increase literature in this field.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research work is restricted to Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarrawa. It is an attempt to critically evaluate audio-visual resources and services in academic libraries. The study is limited by time frame, financial constraints and information resources.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Audio Materials: Audio materials can be seen as instructional materials that appeals to sense of hearing.
Audio-Visual Materials: Audio-Visual Materials are those materials which do not depend solely on reading to get their meaning. They convey meaning mainly through three (3) senses namely: sight, hearing, and feeling such as motion, picture, sound tracks, tapes, records, televisions, video sets depend on the combination of the use of the senses.
Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic collection and analysis of data in order to assess the strengths and weakness of programs, policies, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.
Service: Service can be seen as something made or done by a person or organization for the public benefit and with or without regard to direct profit.
Study: This is only concerned on the evaluation on the study of the audio-visual collection and services, and research problem made the study very difficult to cover area.
Visual Resources: Visual resources are visual materials that appeal to the sense of sight.
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