This research project examines the perception of the residents of Unguwan Sanusi, Kaduna over the popular Hausa programme, “GARI YA WAYE” on DITV. It relies on the assumptions that audience members have a disposition towards certain programmes they are exposed to. The research adopted survey in testing the questions raised and drew conclusions from the findings, part of which justifies the popularity of the programme.
1.1 Background of the Study
In the 21st century, the television as medium remains a potent means of communication. Its relative advantages of both sight and sound makes it highly advantageous over other channels of mass communication. Mc Quail (2008) noted that television has been a means of communication purposes and effects, although most television contents are not live, they often seems to create an illusion of ongoing reality and thus can create perception in the minds of the active viewers. There is a sense of intimacy and personal involvement which is cultivated between the spectator and presenter or actors and the participants on the television screen.
The extent of television dominance in the lives of people cannot be underestimated because television stemmed from its capacity to transmit sounds and pictures thus act as a window of the world. The status of television as the most massive of the media in terms of reach, time spent and popularity has barely changed over (30 years) and it adds all the time to its global audience (Mc Quail, 2008).
Television in Nigeria has concentrated almost entirely on institution and public function that make news pay for television and patronize it (Sobowale, 1992). He added that events that are not official or semi-official or those not related to institution hardly covered by media housed especially the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA). This assertion makes this research work imperative given the possible perception audience may likely have on the programming content of relative television station.
The media role in public perception has undoubtedly influenced studies or researches in the past. As a result of the power and impact of mass communication, media targeted messages may have considerable influence on the perception of audience members over a programmed content, accordingly. The mass media especially television can therefore bring its massive audience into a direct relationship with particular set values attitudes and beliefs and also influence individual disposition.
Odukomaiya (1992) asserts that to this extent, therefore local programming contents in television especially in local language may be of considerable interest and thus, have considerable impact on the local audience. The broadcast media especially television became one of the major contributions to direct change of individual opinion attitude or behavior (Boluwade, 1999). Psychologically and naturally, people learn about their social environment and respond to it; it is assumed that whatever people see on it, is true and they seem to be influenced by those things.
According to Gerbner (1990), television blends that mainstream reality into the culture of mainstream television. Television tends that mainstream reality to its won and it sponsor institutional interest. The impression is that the citizens of Ungwan Sanusi, Kaduna may tend to watch “GARI YA WAYE” programme frequently on television at the convenient for personal consumption.
THE PROGRAMME “GARI YA WAYE”
“GARI YA WAYE” is a Hausa feature programme aired by Desmims Independent Television (D.I.T.V.) Kaduna, a private broadcast media outlet. The programme falls under news and current affairs department and deals current and topical issues bothering the society. It is inform of interactive programme using telephone calls from numerous listeners and viewers from the catchment area of Kaduna.
The programme is broadcasted simultaneously by both Radio and Television channels for the benefits of the rural dwellers that do not have electricity or the signal could not be reach. “GARI YA WAYE” commenced broadcast on the 1st of January 2006 by late Khalifa Baba Ahmed, the Executive Chairman of the corporation then. The programme is aired five times a week by 6.30am to 9.00am, except Fridays and Sundays with two (2) presenters – Salisu Umar and Khadiza Molid and fifteen (15) reporters as co-presenters.
The audience of this prominent Hausa programme “GARI YA WAYE” are often allowed to freely talk, comment on the topical issue of discussion or any report shown in the programme.
1.2 Brief History of DESMIMS INDEPENDENT TELEVISION (D.I.T.V.) Kaduna.
DESMIMS INDEPENDENT TELEVISION is a veritable source for enlightenment, entertainment, information and news about Nigeria and Overseas – sixteen hours a day. DITV programmes are unique blend of reports, magazine programmes, information and culture with current affairs reports, documentary about politics, business, the art and sports. DITV strives to provide vital background information to keep its viewers up to date with what is happening worldwide. This explains why the station is the preferred agency for all advertising company.
It was incorporated in (1986) and adventually started production in Kaduna in the 3rd quarter of (1990). In June 1993, the company was granted a license for television broadcasting and redistribution.
In the history of deregulated broadcasting in Nigeria, DESMIMS Broadcast Nigeria Limited was the first toutilized it license to go on air on the 2nd of June 1994 at exactly 22 minutes past 5pm. DITV was therefore the first private broadcasting station in Nigeria. The Ultra modern Radio and Television studios are co-located on Sambo Close, GRA Kaduna, in a prestigious exclusive architectural building with impressive cultural façade, while the administrative offices allocated at Sokoto Road, where an extra-large, all purpose studio is situated. This is linked with other studios in the new building with underground cutting age technology of fiber optics cables.
The Radio and Television transmitter metres are in solid states and full digitalized. A 300 – foot self-supporting mast carriers both the Radio and Television antenna.
The 10KWatts FM stereo Radio transmitter effectively cover all part of Kaduna State and even beyond, while the 5KWatts television transmitters provide strong and clear signals to all the 23 local government areas of the State including outlining districts of the neighbouring States. The stations programmes are designed cater for the social cultural interest of the diverse people of the states and are mainly targeted to specialized groups of viewers and listeners.
DITV has a large number of viewership, particularly women and children who always remained to the stations for the programmes that appeal their sensibility. Often keeping them delighted, enlightened and entertained. The television station broadcast it signals on channel 38 UHF, while the Radio programmes are received on 97.7 MHz on the FM band.
The Alheri Radio is intended to broadcast exclusively in Hausa language so as to have a broader outreach to grass-root simply because Hausa is the lingua franker of more than 50 ethnic groups in Kaduna State. The specialty of Alheri Radio is the broadcast of 30min comprehensive news and reports in Hausa at 2hrs interval about daily happenings from all part of the States and the country in general. There is a robust dynamic commercial department staffed by energetic young men and women sufficiently motivated to embarked on an aggressive drive for advertisement which are heavily discounted when aired simultaneously on radio and television. DITV Radio and Television have become a household names having endeared themselves to heart of the young and old. No wonder the station profile is the rising higher and higher and it now towers up rightly among its peers.
1.3 Brief History of Ungwan Sanusi, Kaduna
This study cover the Ungwan Sanusi community in the area of Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The Ungwan Sanusi is one of the oldest settlements now presently located within metropolitan Kaduna; hence it is less than 500 metres away from the seat of power – governemtn house (Sir Kashim Ibrahim House), Kaduna.
This area is said to be established since colonial era around 1950. It was narrated that the then Governor-General, Lord Lugard used to ride on horseback to the first three (30 houses built in the area to pay homage to the traditional ruler, Sarkin Anguwar Sanusi Mallam Sanusi (Sa’adu 2011).
Angwan Sanusi is politically delineated at “ward 10”. It is bordered by Badiko on the North, by Rigasa area (Nnamdi Azikwe Western bypass) by the West, Tudun Wada (Sabon-Gari) by the South and Tudun Nupawa/Kaduna Polytechnic to the East Ungwan Sanusi, according to the 2006 population figure is one of the most populated areas within Kaduna North Local Government with about 600,000 inhabitants. It is narrated that most of the people living in the area are Hausa/Fulani with almost a quarter of the population speaking English Language (Mallam Zubairu A. Sada, 2006).
The most prominent economic activities of the people of the area are farming. There are residents in Ungwan Sanusi who do not farm but engage in business. Other categories of residents are civil servants. There are few markets and several institutions, primary, secondary, and vocational schools and health institutions including a Federal Tertiary Institution, Kaduna Polytechnic. Some of the institutions are Maimuna Gwarzo Day Secondary School (Girls), Bintaya Computer Training Centre, Danfodio Vocational Training Centre and Sabon Gari Health Centre. There is also a hospitality facility in the area, Bananddini Hotel.
Ungwan Sanusi is laid out with several township linkage roads such as Gamagira road, Chawai road, PRP road, Dabban road, Kogama road, Mohammad Wule road, Kudandan road, Magaji close, Rahama close and Imam road.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
Despite the tremendous contributions made by the media especially broadcast media in the societal development through various programmes. Researchers like Browser (2000), Klapper (2004) and Ecliz (2007) confirmed that the media do not create the needed awareness which includes informing and educating members of the public. Similarly, the media are accused of being bias in their programmes in terms of priority and orientation (Vitriolic et al 1969) and mislead people through airing of programmes that are not factual.
Based on these criticisms labeled against the mass media about their inability to effectively inform and educate their teaming audience, this researcher set out to find out the true perception of Kaduna Residence on the DITV Hausa programme “GARI YA WAYE”.
1.5 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to access the perception of “GARI YA WAYE” programme on the citizens of Kaduna. This study has the following objectives to ascertain whether citizens of Kaduna State watch DITV “GARI YA WAYE” Hausa Magazine Programme.
- To determine if “GARI YA WAYE” programme interest the citizens of Kaduna.
- To find out whether the programme is conveniently scheduled for the citizens of Kaduna.
- To ascertain if “GARI YA WAYE” programme has increased its perception among the residents of Kaduna.
- To determine whether “GARI YA WAYE” programme influences the perception of residents of Kaduna.
1.6 Significance of the Study
“GARI YA WAYE” Hausa Magazine Programme has become a popular programme in Kaduna. The study therefore would provide useful insight on the perception of “GARI YA WAYE” in Kaduna. Also the researchers findings will help to expand the perception of “GARI YA WAYE” and existing knowledge especially and also serve as a guide for further investigation in the area. The study would add knowledge to mankind in general.
1.7 Research Questions
- Is “GARI YA WAYE” magazine popular among residents of Ungwan Sanusi?
- Is “GARI YA WAYE” conveniently scheduled for the residents of Ungwan Sanusi?
- Are there limitations to the prospects of the station among residents of Ungwan Sanusi?
- Are there better ways the programme can be enhanced for more acceptance?
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is limited to Hausa Magazine Programme “GARI YA WAYE” only. Similarly, only residents of Ungwan Sanusi would be sampled in the study.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
This study covers residents of Ungwan Sanusi and their perception of “GARI YA WAYE” Hausa Magazine Programme on DITV. This study has no limitation and similarly, the scope of the study materials is limited to Ungwan Sanusi.
1.10 Definition of Terms
DITV: it refers to Desmims Independent Television “GARI YA WAYE”. It is the little of the programme.
INFLUENCE: refers to power affecting a person or things or course of event especially on that operates without direct or apparent.
1.11 Theoretical Framework
The mass communication theory which will guide the study is the “perception theory”. This theory was propounded by Berelson and Stainer in 1964. The theory states that mass communication wants audiences to pay attention to their messages learn the content of the messages and make appropriate changes in attitudes of beliefs or produce the desired behavioural responses. The perception theory tells us that the process of interpreting messages is complex and that those goals may be difficult to achieve. It is because of the above concept that the researcher will try to examine the process of perception which is of great relevant to the study. Berelson and Stainer (1964 – 88) state that perception is the complex process by which people select, organize and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful and correct picture of the word. Research has identified two types of influences on our perception structural and functional influences. Structural influence on our perception came from the physical aspects of the stimulation which we are being exposed. Functional influences are psychological factors that influence perception and therefore introduced some concept which include selective retention.
This is applied to the tendency of people’s perception to be influenced by their wants, needs, attitude and other psychological factors. An individual tends to perceive and then decode communication messages in the light of our previous experiences and current dispositions. Different people can react to a message in a different ways because no messages will have an intended meaning for every one or have the same meaning for all the receivers.
It is only natural that people seek out information that caters to their own interests confirms their belief and boost their own ego while avoiding these that ate contrary to their own predisposition and attack their self image. This determines which papers they subscribe to or read at all which television stations they turn to, which programmes do they watch on those channels, and to what kind of advertisement they like most.
The eyes process information much faster the brain can interpret, the human brain has to select which information to pay attention to at any given time in other to avoid confusion. Hence, advertiser use all kinds of gimmicks to catch and retain audience attention must especially with the erection of billboards.
This is the tendency to recall of information to be influenced by wants, needs, attitude and other psychological factors. Selective exposure, attention, perception, and retention work together in their ways not in isolation. However in basis of selective principles in perception, their most powerful strategic selective perception since it makes peoples interpret messages (including mass mediated messages) not necessarily according to the meaning intended by the same source but mainly on the basic of the personal factors highlighted earlier. Therefore the relevance of this theory is to see which consumer or individuals have exposure to a message, how they attend to it and the attention they pay before retaining in order to recall later.
The major strength of this theory is that individual have the ability to perceive attend and retain information or messages at their disposal. On the contrary, the message can reach the receiver, hit the target and still fail to accomplish its purpose because it is subject to interpretation of the receiver and therefore serves as a major weakness of the theory.
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