ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF CARICA PAPAYA SEED AGAINST ENTERIC ORGANISMS
Lots of research has been conducted on Carica papaya and its antibacterial efficacy on bacterial pathogens and this led to this study on antibacterial activities of Carica papaya seed extract on enteric microorganisms. The seed extract was prepared in two ways; Aqueous and methanolic with varying concentration such as 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/ml respectively. The agar well diffusion method was used to assay the effect on standardized test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Also positive and negative control were used to truly have an accurate idea of how potent the seed extracts were when used in close compsarism with conventional drugs. The zone of inhibition was calculated at different concentrations of the seed extracts for both (aqueous and methanolic). There was inhibition of the test organisms at varying concentrations except Salmonella typhi which was inhibited at 100mg/ml for both forms of extract. Though it was revealed that both forms of the seed extract (aqueous and methanolic) were effective against the bacterial pathogens, however the methanolic had more potency compared to the aqueous extract.
Carica papaya belongs to the family of Caricaceae, and several species of Caricaceae have been used as remedy against a variety of diseases (Alabi et al., 2012). Carica papaya is a neutraceutical plant having a wide range of pharmacological activities. The whole plant has its own medicinal value. Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrients and is available throughout the year. It is a rich source of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E; the minerals, magnesium and potassium; the B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fiber (Aravind et al., 2013). The black seeds of the papaya are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground and used as a substitute for black pepper. Dried papaya seeds actually look quite similar to peppercorns and can be used in just the same way. Sprinkle a little quantity over a meal, especially protein rich meals, is a simple way to add extra enzymes to your diet and improve your digestive appetite. The papaya seeds are very pungent and peppery, making them almost unpalatable. However the seeds seem to have more potent medicinal values than the flesh. Papaya seeds have antibacterial properties and are effective against Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus infections. Papaya seeds may protect the kidneys from toxin induced kidney failure. Papaya can eliminate intestinal parasites. It is used as heamoroid Cure for (piles) and typhoid and anti-helminthic and anti-amoebic properties (Aravind et al., 2013).
Enteric bacteria naturally live in the intestine of animals and humans; however some of these bacteria cause diarrhoea. Diarrhoea disease is one of the leading cause of illness in young children in Nigeria (Parashar et al; 2013). Diarrhoea disease are the cause of almost three million deaths annually mainly among children younger than five years of age, (Seung-Hak et al., 2006). Available report in Nigeria indicates that more than 315,000 deaths of pre-school age children are recorded annually as a result of diarrhoea disease (Babaniyi et al., 1991; Alabi et al; 1998).
The seed of papaya has antimicrobial activity against Trichomonas vaginali strophozoites. It could also be used in urinogenital disorder like trichomoniasis with care to avoid toxicity. The seeds, irrespective of its fruit maturity stages have bacteriostatic activity on gram positive and negative organisms which could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcer. However, little information exits on the antimicrobial property of Carica papaya dried and fresh leaves (Alabi et al., 2012). Recently, antifertility (Lohiya et al., 1999) antihelminthic (Satrija et al., 1995) and anti-inflammatory activity (Osho et al., 2007) have been reported. Carica papaya seeds possess moisture, proteins, fatty acids, and phospholipids, such as phosphotidylcholine and cardiolipin. Other compounds present in seeds are c farpaine, benzyl isothiocynate, benzyl glucosinolate, beta-sitosterol,caricin, enzyme myrosin. The well-studied proteinases from papaya are papain, chymopapain, caricain, and glycylendopeptidase. Papain occurs in all parts of the tree except the root (Anonymous, 1992).
Fruit and seed extracts have antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherischia coli, and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (Tang et al., 1972; Emeruwa et al., 1982). The juice is used for curing warts, cancer, and tumors. Leaves have beenpoulticed into nervous pains, elephantoid growths (Asolkar et al., 1992). The antihyperglycemic effect of unripe mature fruits and seeds of Carica papaya have also been reported (Olagunja, et al 1995; Adeneye and Olagunja, 2009).
Papaya leaves are made into tea as a treatment for malaria. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity has been noted in some preparations of the plant, the leaves of the papaya plants contain chemical compounds of karpain, Substance which kills microorganisms that often interfere with the digestive function (Udoh et al., 2005). Papaya leaf extracts have phenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, 5, 7- dimethoxycoumarin, caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid (Romasi et al., 2011).Antimicrobials of plant origin effective in the treatment of infectious diseases and simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects often associated with synthetic antimicrobial agents have been discovered. Medical uses of plants range from the administration of the roots, barks, stems, leaves and seeds to the use of extracts and decoction from the plants (Iwu et al., 1999).
To determine the antibacterial effect of Carica papaya seed on enteric microorganism.
To extract the active ingredients from Carica papaya seeds using two different solvents (water and methanol)
To determine the potency and efficacy of aqueous and methanolic seed extract of Carica papaya seed.
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