PROJECT WRITING GUIDE
FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
NOTE: The research topic can be referred to as the “question”, “thesis”, “subject”, “theme”, “title”, or any other such designation that refers to the direction of the research paper.
• (i) “A case study singles out individuals, groups of individuals, institutions, or communities for study. Usually case studies are motivated by problems emanating from the group being studied.” – E. O. Akuezuilo.
• (ii) “A case study is true representation of an actual experience. It includes the steps that were taken, types of people interviewed, data gathered, problems encountered, facts collected, results gathered, questions raised, things learned.” – S. A. Olatunji.
The project content and arrangement depend on your school, level and supervisor.
i. Cover Page
ii. Title Page
iv. Certification/Approval Page
viii. Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction (Sometimes labeled the next)
1.1 Background of the Study – serves the purpose of presenting the background to the problem. In it you explain how you become interested in the problem and why you felt the study was worth pursuing, establishing the need for the study and set forth its purpose. After giving the general background of the study, you carefully establish the need for the study, telling why the information resulting from the study is needed.
1.2 Statement of the Problem – states clearly and directly what the research problem is. The problem should be brief and straight to the point. This makes it possible for even an uninformed reader to secure an idea of the nature of the problems which underlie the rationale for the study.
1.3 Purpose of the Study – this section helps to answer the question, why are you doing this research? How will it help people? What contributions are expecting to make? A good practice is to list the major purposes of the reader to appreciate the nature and scope of the study. The last purpose of the study will normally be to make recommendations based on the findings.
1.4 Hypothesis – hypotheses are tentative answer to researchable problems. They are expressed in form of relationship between independent and dependent variable. In other word, hypothesis can be said to be an idea put forward as a starting for research or explanation especially in a research situation.
1.5 Limitation and Delimitation – you must set forth exactly the bounds of the topic being researched. This answers the question, what is your work limited to? It could be limited to an area, language, etc. This underscores the need to use case studies. Delimitation concerns those eliminated from consideration whereas limitation are those factors inherent in the research situation that might affect the results which you must recognize and acknowledge.
1.6 Significance of the Study – this is to clarify why you think your project is worthy of studying. A brief historical survey related to the problem and the importance of taking the problem further is required.
1.7 Assumptions – this serves to clear every doubt on the minds of the reader.
1.8 Definitions of Terms – this refers to the definition and explanation of those terms that have unique use in the study. They should be words that need definition or clarification.
1.9 Conclusion/Summary – this shall be a brief overview of your project work in the chapter.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The content of this chapter depends on your research topic.
2.0 Introduction – This is an overview of the work you intend to do. It helps to give direction to you and your readers. After the introduction you go on to divide the research problem into smaller research parts. In it you take one part of the problem and discusses the problem from the point of view of relevant literature.
The starting point of Literature Review is the Library. It helps you as a researcher to understand what other previous writers had written. On the basis of what has already been written you can make informed conclusions.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the entire process of identifying data elements, data source and actual data collection. Data may be collected by observation, interview, questionnaire, experiment, etc.
3.1 The Population
3.2 The Sample Size
3.3 The Data Collection Method
3.4 The Data Analysis Method
3.5 The Chart of how you displayed your data
3.6 Conclusion to Chapter Three
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This is the time for your data to speak and give direction to solving your research questions. The basic elements of the chapter include:
4.1 Data Presentation
4.2 Data Analysis – This has to be done in orderly and systematic way with the help of tables, charts and diagrams depending on techniques adopted by the supervisor.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
In this chapter, you review your entire work and draw conclusions. Much more than any other chapter this is where you now present your views succinctly. Elements of this chapter include:
5.0 Introduction (may include a reminder of the research problem)
5.1 State your conclusions basically derived from your literature reviews and data analysis
5.2 Make recommendation and give appropriate application. The recommendation on area for further studies and research.