The research is entitled Evaluation of the Effects of Gender Inequality on governance and Conflict in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Gender inequality is regarded as unequal treatment or perception of individual on the basis of gender. The political enfranchisement of women in Nigeria politics seems to have maintained on the surface of the level of gender equity politically, because it is assume that constitutionally there are no barriers to women participation in governance. The contributions of women to governance globally can not be over emphasized but in Nigeria women had been marginalized and discriminated against holding political position especially in Kaduna state women also, play major roles in preserving order and normalcy in the midst of chaos and destruction and in time of conflict. Data for this study were sourced through secondary and primary sources of data collection. The study revealed that the issue of gender inequality on governance and conflict is an issue of concern to both men and women in Nigeria. The research concluded that the challenge of gender on government is serious political set back in Kaduna State Recommendations about the study were forwarded for any necessary action to address the negative implications of gender inequality on governance and conflict.
1.1 Background of the Study
According to Afolabi etal (2003); woman constitute over half of the world’s population and contribute in vital ways to societal development generally. In most societies women assume five keys roles; mother, producer, home-manager, community organizer and socio-cultural and political activitists of these roles mentioned, the last has been engendered by women movements attributed to historical gender discrimination and inequality. Hitherto the emergence of these movements, gender roles was divided between the male and female sexes. These role can be broadly classified into the productive and reproductive gender roles. Whereas the productive gender roles were mainly associated with the male sex, reproductive gender roles were exclusive to their female counterparts.
The political enfranchisement of woman in Nigeria politics seems to have maintained on the surface of level of gender equity politically, because it is assume that constitutionally, there are not barriers to women’s participation. But what exactly is/are the problems and prospects women encounter in their quest to participate in politics? Women movement can be said to have been largely responsible for increase in political participation of women Kira (2000) recognized an important variable responsible for increase in political participation other than women movement. In her stud the concluded that woman would be even more supportive of electing more women to public office, if they were knowledgeable as men about the extent of woman’s under representation.
She also when further to distinguished their descriptive representation from “substantive representation. Descriptive representative referred to the representation of their respective constituency, whereas substantive referred to representation based on gender (the prioritizing of the pursuit of women interest by female representatives). Thus, is woman’s participation actually substantive – for the pursuit of the interest of women’s is women’s participation descriptive –for the pursuit of the interest of their constituency, or is women increase in political participation a movement in itself? This study is aim of evaluating women participation in politics, those factors responsible for increase in participation and those that hamper participation. If half of the world’s population remains vulnerable to economic, political. Legal and social marginalization, our hope of advancing democracy and prosperity will remain in serious jeopardy. If women are not talking a front role in political activities in the world.
The 1979 Nigeria constitution guaranteed the right of women to participate in active politics. However, the last decade has witnessed a relative increase in women’s participation. This is only relative increase in women participation. This is only when we measure increase in participation will, certain standards like the number of women who vote in element, the number of public office held by women, number related policies implemented by government etc over the years, there has been a remarkable increase in women’s participation in politics in Nigeria, considering these standards, yet there is inherently a pronounced level of under representation of women in politics when compared with their male counterparts. Women aspiration to participate in governance is premised on the following ground. That woman in Nigeria represents half of the population and hence should be allow a fair share in decision making and the governance of the country. Secondly that all human being are equal and women possess the same fight as men to participate in governance and public life. The right to democratic governance is an entitlement conferred upon all citizens by law.
It is hard to imagine a world without war, and every day we hear reports of new conflicts and old grievances as well as escalating tensions and violence worldwide. Most of Africa’s conflicts and related disasters are self-inflicted wounds arising from undemocratic or bad governance, partially manifested in gender in-equities in the structures and processes of public governance, which in turn are reflected in the near absence of women’s voice in key decision-making issues, including those involving war and peace.
Women’s contributions to governance, war and peace have long been under estimated, in fact, women often contribute to the outbreak of violence and hostilities which in many cases they are instrumental in inciting men to defend group interests, honor and collective livelihoods. Women play major roles in preserving order and normalcy in the midst of chaos and destruction and in times of conflict when men engage in war and disappear, take refuge in other places or killed, it is women who are left with the burden of ensuring family livelihood. Women struggle to protect their families’ health and safety which is a task that rests on their ability to cope pragmatically with change and adversity. It is therefore not surprising that women are also a driving force for peace (Sorensen, 1998).
Contemporary conflict have caused economic disturbance and along with the deepening violence women experience during war, the long-term effects of conflict and militarization create a culture of violence that renders women especially vulnerable after war. Institutions of governance and law are weakened and social fragmentation is pronounced. Until the state’s security and legal infrastructure are rebuilt, women’s security is threatened inside and outside of the home, where they are subject to the rule of aggression rather than the rule of law. Under constant threat of attack by family members, rogue elements, ex-combatants, criminals, women spend their days searching for water, food and firewood and caring for children, the sick, the elderly and their extended families. Even though women provide these unpaid services in times of peace, their burden is intensified during conflict since the peace-time infrastructure is often destroyed as wells may have been poisoned, trees for firewood destroyed, fields burnt and clinics vandalized.
The building of peace is a process in which all affected sectors of society have a responsibility to take part in and women must be given special attention because they represent a vital resource for conflict prevention and sustaining peace efforts from the grassroots level upwards. On the other hand, the social transformation occurring in the post conflict context opens up opportunities which should not be missed by women to empower themselves and to strengthen and enhance their contributions to democratic governance however, while they often bear the brunt of the war brutalities and are increasingly involved in combatant activities, they are seldom part of the inner circles of peace accords or policies at the formal level of resolve conflict (Boyd 1994).
In Nigeria, Managing and addressing post-conflict reconstruction, cannot be divorced from the question of governance as sustainable peace cannot be assured in the absence of a conducive governance framework. Despite women’s marginality at the war-mongering tables, they are not the only victims of war and other forms of violence, they are also active participants before, during and after civil war, serving as instigators combatants service providers and reconstruction of the post war battered political-economy and society. But in all of these roles, most women’s peace initiatives takes place outside the formal governance frameworks, hence their long term impact/influence on the overall objective of sustainable peace, cannot easily be determined.
For proper democratic governance and equal participation in Nigeria, women in key positions of decision-making, including the military and other security related institutions should be promoted.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years Nigerian women have been relegated to the background especially in issues of political representation. This is largely due to the fact that the Nigerian political system do not favour the female gender. The level of and forms of women’s participation in politics is largely sharped by cultural and societal barriers in the form of violence, discrimination and illiteracy on the side of the women.
The national average of women’s political participation in Nigeria has remain 6.7 percent in elective positions, which is far below the global average of 22.5 percent. In many countries like (Nigeria) the rights of women are enshrined in law, and there are no formal legal barriers to woman’s political participation in election processes. In practice, however, there are often formidable obstacles, to women active participation in politics. The hurdles to be overcome can be particularly daunting for women considering running for office and may be overwhelmed for women in post conflict nations like Nigeria. Politics has traditionally been a male domain that many women have found unwelcoming or even hostile, societies in which traditional or patriarchal values remain strong may frown on women entering politics.
Over the years there has been raging debate over the participation or desire of women in Nigerian politics, some argue that, women are regarded as weaker sexes are social constructs owing to social value, norms and beliefs, which have neglected their meaningful contributions and have placed them in a subordinate position to men in
the nations political system. This “sexual division of labour” in the political system is often traced to the onset of colonialism in Nigeria.
Following the foregoing trends of leadership in Nigeria right from the military rule statistics shows that, women only secured representation in constested positions in 1999, 4%, in 2003, while in 2007 they made with only 6%. Few and almost insignificant number of women were elected into various posts in past four general elections held’s is the country between 1999 2015. (Damolola, 2006). The result of the survey shows that no woman was elected as governor of any state in the federation. We only had few women as members of Houses of Assembly across the country and as members of the upper house (senate) and lower house (House of Representative) of National Assembly.
This survey shows a poor representative of women in the 1999, 2006, 2007 and 2011 elections. According to the figures collated from the data base of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), records shows that a total 7160 candidates (men and women) constested in the April elections, of this member, only 628 women participated. Out of the 25 candidates that participated for the office of the president, only 1 is a women while 5 women contested for the office of Vice-president. From the table we saw that there were 9 female senators our of 109 senates and 25 women in the House of presentatives of 360 members of the State of Assemblies. This is two percent improvement of the 2003 general elections. The 2015 General Election showed a declined in the performance of women and this is very troubling given the ground swell and campaign for popular participation by women in political process in Nigeria. Explanation for the factors which constitute impediments to women’s efforts of winning elective offices and enduring genuine political representation are legion.
Discrimination against at every level women and girls traditionally have limited access to education, ownership of land and assets in Nigeria. and they are denied equal treatment inheritance right, human resources development and sustainable economic growth. It is therefore, worn some that at a time they are seeking equal treatment and participation in issue that concern them and their families, some respected traditional rulers who ordinarily should know better are making utterances that are entirely unhelpful.
Against the background that just last September, gender equality was declared not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.
The imperative of popular participation to democratic governance has engendered intense academic discourse on the political alienation of women across the globe including Nigeria. based on recent study carried out, it has been realized that despite the increasing global agitations for gender equality, the situation in Nigeria. Most of the violent conflicts that have occurred in Kaduna State have their roots in undemocratic structures and poor processes of governance, unequal power and resource allocation which are politicized and expressed in socio-cultural terms. Consequently, political leaders garner and politicize citizens ethnic, religious differences as a means to justify and endorse mass participation in self-serving conflicts. This is usually driven by greed and love for power, such conflicts therefore is an indication that the governance framework lacks democratic and distribution of power and resources and for the development of multiculturalism, tolerance and accommodation of diverse socio cultural ideological and religious believes.
Women clearly play a crucial role in conflict prevention, management resolution and post conflict reconstruction however, their sidelining in high level decision making as well as
those decisions regarding war and peace constrain their ability to diversely influence and/or impact on conflict prevention and realization of sustainable peace.
1.3 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis formulated for testing are
Ho: There is no significance relationship between gender governance and conflict
Hi: There is significance relationship between gender-governance and conflict in
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this research is to evaluate the issue of gender-governance and conflict in Nigeria. however the specific objective are:
- To identify the causes of gender inequality in governance and conflict in Nigeria.
- Determine the role of women in conflict prevent and management in Nigeria.
- To examine the level of women involvement in political governance in Nigeria.
- Understand gender challenges and women participation in governance.
- Find out the possible way to reduce the problem of gender governance and conflict in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study can not be over emphasis how looking at the topical issue under study that involve gender, governance and conflict in Nigeria. However, the study is important the government of Nigeria for it will enable them to know how the issue of gender inequality on governance and conflict affect the women wing in Nigeria. The study also serves as a contribution to know the existing knowledge on gender-governance and conflict in Nigeria.
This research is important because it give direction to those who would want to further investigate the issue of gender inequality on governance and conflict in Nigeria.
The research is of great importance to Kaduna state in particular to know how to involve women participation is governance and conflict prevention.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of Study
The scope of this study covers the issue of gender inequality on governance and conflict in Nigeria, with focus to Kaduna State. The delimitations of the study are; to enable the researcher to explore the issue of gender inequality on governance in Kaduna. It is obvious that women participation in governance have been a major concern at the global level. This study intend to make the general public to know why the issue of gender agenda have not been taking with serious attention in Nigeria and to explain why and how it have affecter governance and conflict in Nigeria. This study also intent to achieve ways to overcome the challenges of gender and women active participation in political governance in Nigeria.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally and authoritively defined as they mean in this study.
Gender: A state of being male or female with reference to social and cultural difference rather then biological ones,
Gender Inequality: It refers to unequal treatment or perception of individual on the basis of sex different of human beings. It also refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men-such as norms roles and relationship between groups of women and men.
Governance: It refers to a process whereby elements in society wield authority and influence and enact policies and decision concerning public life and social setting. (Shanum 2017).
Conflict: A process through which one or more person try to pursue in compatible goal while trying to underline the goal. The goals seeking of other political.
Participation: A voluntary activity by which members of society share in the selection of leaders and directly or indirectly.
Women: Means any adult female person as contracted with girl.
Management: The art of planning and organizing and control human and material resource to achieve an objective.
Politics: Politics refer to the activities of the government members of law making organization or people who try to influence the way a country is governed.
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