ANALYTICAL STUDY OF NATIONAL SECURITY LINKAGES IN NIGERIA AND SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMATICS OF BOKO HARAM TERRORIST ACTIVITIES 2009-2014
The fear of Boko Haram in Nigeria is the beginning of wisdom as expressed by Nigerians. Gradually, steadily and progressively Boko Haram has developed from ragtag Islamic fundamentalist group into a formidable internationalized terrorist group with high capacity and capability to overrun a battalion of troops. It is instructive to note that the internationalization of the fundamentalist group forced the Nigerian government to seek the assistance of international community in dealing with Islamic sect’s menace. National Security is at stake as reports of lack of cooperation and collaboration among the security agencies is a regular discourse in the domain of security experts and federal government officials. This investigation therefore seeks to find out some practical measures likely to resolve the aforementioned security problems with implications for both theoreticians and policy makers in Nigeria.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The security situation in Nigeria today requires a holistic approach. Security agencies of the Federal Government need closer cooperation with civilian security infrastructure which is in place, but seldom considered as a part of the security effort, matters of safety and security are topical issues in the country.
In the past, Nigerians used to fear for the security of property from armed robbers. Today, we fear for our lives from social vices such as kidnapping, abduction, political and economic related assassination, extra-judicial killings. The impact of this massive sense of insecurity on the both psychical and overall functioning of Nigerians cannot be over-emphasized.
It goes to posit on the need to check the rising threats to lives and property across the country and the poor living conditions of many Nigerians.
The country should also come together with unequivocal support to the government and security agencies in the fight against mindless violence and mad-cap ideologies. According to reports, multiple explosives have gone off one after the other in Maiduguri in the usual manner of similar attacks by the members of Boko Haram sect in Kano, Damaturu, Potiskum, Gombe, Jos, Abuja FCT, Suleja, Bauchi and even recently in Jigawa and Taraba States.
It is imperative that there is a large consensus of opinion that government must find a quick – fix – solution to the security problems and then a lasting solution. It is on this strength that the recent Internationalization of this rescue effort is welcome by Nigerians.
To allay fear of Nigerians against the backdrop that foreign domination is at play, the ‘command and control’ should however be led by Nigerians and foreign forces should respect the country’s sovereignty and be wary of local sensitivities.
It is against this background this research study seeks to address the challenges Boko Haram is posing to our national security and ways of containing their siege on the polity and to stem the tide of another civil war in the country. ‘No country fights two (2) civil wars and survives’.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue of insecurity as defined by Boko Haram sect cannot be treated with kid gloves any longer by the federal government. It can also be argued that the environment in which Nigerians live and their experiences of governance practices could be contributory factors to the emergence of terrorism.
This is not the best of time for Nigerian government as the centrifugal force is gaining more momentum. There is a widespread disenchantment with Nigerian state arising from its failure to meet its obligations to the people and the perception that state policies are implemented to advance private interest for personal gains.
This is what has led to the emergence of different ethnic and religious groups such as MASSOB, MOSOP, OPC, Niger-Delta Militants, EGBESU and the latest one, BOKO HARAM.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In peace and conflict studies, research is necessary to draw out the ingredients of reconciliations that, understand, what the aggrieved parties are contesting for, and what they used for settlement.
1.3.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH QUESTION
Meanwhile, the primary researches question for this ‘Thesis’ is “what are the factors that necessitated the emergence of Terrorism challenges in Nigeria?”.
1.3.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Sequentially, the secondary research questions are designed to find solutions to the primary question;
- Until the ethnic and religious issues are addressed properly in Nigeria, the agitation for solution by the people will not abate;
- How do religious group activities like Boko Haram have effect on the National Security?
- Until the gun culture and impunity are addressed, the nation will continue to witness a state of lawlessness;If security agencies fail to tackle the rising wave of criminality and insecurity in the country, the Nation will know no peace;
- Why is the political class not addressing the cancerous issue of corruption in the country?
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective or purpose of this research study is to examine the activities of Boko Haram and to see how its activities have brought about security challenges to the country.
The work will also try to examine the role of the state in addressing the problems pose by the activities of Boko Haram. In the long run, the study will try to examine how the continuous threat of Boko Haram can be extirpated.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research study is to find immediate and lasting solution to the menace of Boko Haram and the security challenges it is having on the Nation. Also, this study will support those in academic and outside the field of academic to have knowledge about the activities of Boko Haram and more important, how best to address present and future security challenges confronting the Nigerian state.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
When a research tests a relationship empirically it become a ‘Hypothesis’. Therefore, the hypothesis for this research study is as stated below:
Ho: There is no relationship between National Security linkages, defined in terms of inter-agencies cooperation and International Multi-lateral assistance in one hand and the defeat of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between National Security linkages, defined in terms of inter-agencies cooperation and International Multi-lateral assistance in one hand and the defeat of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria.
1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This research study is justified by the reason of finding an immediate and lasting solution to the challenges of insecurity as posed by Boko Haram sect.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This period is chosen because it appears to witness the most manifest forms of quasi-terrorism and full-blown terrorism in the history of Nigeria, 1914 to 2014, a period of one hundred years.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
NATIONAL SECURITY: (http://www.wikipedia.com) The ability of a country to maintain its sovereignty and protect its political, economic, social and other interests in a sovereign manner and act likewise in its relations with other states in the International system. It follows then that national security entails the protection of all the National interest upon which the surround of the country depends.
ANALYTICAL: Using a logical method of thinking about something in order to understand it, especially by looking at all the parts separately.
TERRORISM: (Oxford 7th Edition: page1528) is the use of violent action in order to achieve political aims or to force a government to act.
ETHNIC MILITIA: Rise in ethnic nationalism and ethnic movements, coupled with the lack of state capacity to discharge its security functions, especially policing, and has often devolved the functions of local policing and security to self-styled .vigilante groups. A clear example of this was the year 2000 formal adoption of the Bakasi Boys as the state vigilante service in Imo, Abia and Anambra states.
SMALL ARMS: (Oxford 7th Edition: page1389) Category of light weapons which include automatic weapons, up to and including 20 mm submachine guns riffles, carbines handguns and hand place grenades.
CRIME: (Oxford 7th Edition: page347) as activities that in
volves breaking the law.
VIOLENCE: (Oxford 7th Edition: page1642) Is defined as an act of aggression as one against a person who resists violence is an integral part of man’s existence and a common occurrence in human societies, violence can also be defined as physical and non-physical harm that causes damages, pain, injury or fear.
BOKO HARAM: (http://www.wikipedia.com) Colloquially translates into a Western education is a sin “the sect calls itself, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunah Lid Da’awati wal Jihad, and meaning ‘person committed to the propagation of the Prophet’s teachings and Jihad”.
In concluding this chapter, this research work will examine some factors that prompted some citizens to take-up arms against the Nigerian State and proffer solutions to the problems of insecurity in Nigeria.
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