This research titled “Assessment of the Impact of Civil Service Reforms on Policy Implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education (2015 – 2020). Three research objectives were raised to guide the study and one null and alternative hypotheses were formulated. The research objectives are to find out the reasons for civil service reforms, assess the significant impacts as well as identifying the challenges of civil service associated with policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education. The sample size was 102 respondents selected through a purposive sampling technique. The research made use of both primary and secondary sources of gathering information. The simple percentage and mean were used to analyze respondents’ opinions. The research findings revealed that proper accountability of the public service can be achieve by embracing civil service reform in Kaduna State Ministry of Education and also Civil Service Reform has been effective in the delivery of service as a machinery of government, proper implementation of policy in Kaduna State Ministry of Education can be traced to the effectiveness of the civil service reform, Civil Service reform has significant impact on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education, civil service reforms plays a significant role in Kaduna State Ministry of Education as the educational sector has improved over the years, Civil Service Reform has impacted on the financial regulatories of the civil service, Civil Service reform helps to enhance the capacity to carry out revenue generation activities and financial management in the educational sector therefore creating enabling environment for achieving the goals of the Ministry. In testing the hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis H1 that Civil service reforms have significant impacts on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education between 2015 and 2020 is accepted. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendations given that there is therefore the need to embark on realistic, workable and practical reforms that have human face rather than the usual cosmetic approaches. First of all there is need for the government to create enabling conditions of service. This has to do with ensuring adequate pay package and other economic incentives. If this is duly and religiously implemented, civil servants will be discouraged from using unethical means in getting economic benefits from clients and the public in general.



1.1     Background of the Study

The civil service plays a vital role in formulation, implementation, evaluation and review of government policies and programmes. Whether the chief executive of a government is an Emperor, King, President, Prime Minister, Duke, Governor or Mayor, that government cannot function without some form of civil service. A competent and motivated civil service is a prerequisite for maintenance of good governance, production and distribution of public goods and services, fiscal management and sustainability, efficient and effective performance of any government. It is incontestable fact that the concern for effective and efficient resources management in the public sector is universal and historical. This is more emphatic particularly in a developing economy like Nigeria where there are acute scarcity of human and natural resources and the ever increasing demands for public expenditure. In this context of public administration, the civil service is the administrative arm of government, an agent, an organ and machinery of government in the governance and developmental processes of any country in the world. Hence, the effectiveness of a government is to a large extent determined by the efficiency and competence of its civil service. The Nigerian civil service is a product of colonialism, established as an instrument for expediently implementing the administrative structure and activities of the British Colonialist from the late 19th century (Adamolekun, 2015).

With the emergence of the modern state, the civil service in developing countries evolved not only to formulate policies but also to effectively implement them. In other words, the civil service is often associated with the effective and efficient management of development policies and programmes. In this connection, it is seen as the main, but not the only instrument by which development activities in developing countries are implemented (Esman, 2017). The role of the civil service as an instrument in a polity’s socio-economic and political development is incontestable. In some parts of the world, however, the civil service is a branch of government which is usually grouped with the executive, and without which government cannot function. Civil service is usually understood as a subset of the wider public service. This subset consists of government ministries, departments and agencies, including people who advise on, develop and implement government policies and programmes, and those who manage day to day activities.

All over the world, the civil service seems unable to cope with the prevailing ideological, political and economic changes as well as the management innovations. In other parts of the world, especially in Africa, weakness of the civil service is considered as onenof the fundamental causes of socio-political upheavals and economic crises (Beetseh, 2014). Cognisant to this fact, over the last decade, many countries are introducing primary changes in the structure and operation of their civil service systems.

Nigeria, as part of her general political and economic restructuring programmes, is undertaking comprehensive measures to restructure her civil service. In Nigeria, the civil service which constitute the hub through which the government implement its policies and programmes is bedeviled with ethical and accountability problems which has over the years constituted a significant drag on the overall growth and development of the Nigerian state (Beetseh, 2014).

Conventionally, political leaders usually determine the policies in any nation. Such leaders outline the political economic and social directions for the country. It is important for these policies to be properly articulated and implemented for meaningful results. The civil service is the main instrument through which government implements and administers public policies and programmes. This function usually derives from the constitution and the laws of the land (Olagboye, 2015). However, the way and manner civil service in a particular state is managed determines its performance. Thus, civil service has prominent roles to play in service delivery. The development achieved in many countries of the world can be attributed to the ability of their civil service to effectively translate the policies of their political leaders into concrete service.

Therefore, it is against the background that this study seeks to assess “The Impact of Civil Service Reforms on Policy Implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education.”

1.2     Statement of the Problem

At Independence in 1960, when Nigerians took over the leadership of the country, the civil service structure was left the way the colonial master kept it. Much was not changed in the activities and roles of the civil service. The Nigerians in service replaced the colonial masters and adopted their style of management for self-aggrandizement and exploitation of the masses. This was between the periods of 1960 and 2006, consequently, Nigerians clamoured for Nigerianization policy. The introduction of the Nigerianization policy in the civil service was meant to reduce and ultimately end the expatriate predominance in the higher civil service in Nigeria but it rather brought with it the problem of the regionalization of the Nigerian civil service, where Nigerians of Northern extract adopted the Northernization policy in which northerners were given priority attention in the area of recruitment in the service whether they were qualified or not. The same thing went for the Eastern and Western regions of the country. This led to segregation and sectionalism in the Nigerian civil service.

In the same vein, the military also disbanded the legislative and elected representatives of the people. Thus, the government function without elected representatives, yet policies were made and implemented and laws were enacted and enforced. This brought the question of, who determined policies and enacted laws in Nigeria during this period. The military co-opted former politicians, academics and top civil servants to ministerial posts thereby giving them enormous powers to initiate economic, social, and political policies and at the same time executed them. This led to the lack of accountability and probity in the service. During this time, grand corruption was pervasive among the civil servants and others who had access to political power. Okigbo reported that between 2017 and June 1994, the sum of $12.5 billion government revenue in extra ordinary ‘Special Accounts’ were unaccounted for and this loot has continued up till today. Therefore, the present state of affairs in the civil service appears that the variables responsible for poor performance in the Nigerian civil service have not been dealt with and so the problem still lingers. It is against this background that this study seeks to assess The Impacts of Civil Service Reforms on Policy Implementation in Nigeria with reference to Kaduna State Ministry of Education as a case study.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to assess The Impacts of Civil Service Reforms on Policy Implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education, 2015 – 2020. Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Find out the reasons for civil service reforms on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education, 2015 -2020.
  2. Assess the significant impacts of civil service reforms on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education, 2015 -2020.
  3. Identify the challenges of civil service associated with policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education, 2015 -2020.

1.4     Research Hypothesis

A set of assumptions of speculation which in tentatively accepted as the basic for an investigation. Hypothesis are testable statements about the relationships between variables. They are meant to be tested statistically and accepted or rejected on the basis of the findings which arise from the study. H0 is used represents the null hypothesis while H1 is used to represent the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, the hypotheses to be tested in this study are:

H0:       Civil service reforms have insignificant impacts on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of                             Education between 2015 and 2020.

H1:       Civil service reforms have significant impacts on policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of                                Education between 2015 and 2020.

1.5     Significance of the Study

The civil service as is widely known is the government tool for the implementation of its policies and programmes. This remains the main function of the civil service. The question which continues to be asked by the leadership and the enlightened general public is how effective and committed the civil service is to its functions. This is notwithstanding the fact that there are some auxiliary factors like welfare and the prevailing societal conditions which may impact on the civil servant. It is an understatement to say that societal influence has been quite overwhelming in recent times. Quite a number of people in and outside government point to the good old days of the civil service. This gives the impression that they look forward to a return to those days, even though the circumstances have changed. There seem to be not only growing poverty, unemployment, corruption and an ever widening gap between the rich and poor; but also the palpable decay of public institutions.

The establishment of civil service is to address these problems.  The  significance  of  the  study,  therefore,  is  to  study  the impacts of civil service reforms in Kaduna  State Ministry of Education.  It is the opinion of the researcher that the study will assist the government in their performances towards policy implementation in Kaduna State Ministry of Education.

The findings and recommendations of this study will help to identify the problems confronting civil service system in the implementation of decisions and policies of the federal government of Nigeria in the fourth republic. The study will also be significant to the general public because it covers issues on public administration which is important to every citizen of a nation as it concerns the condition of a society.

1.6     Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of this study is the restriction imposed on the research by the researcher himself. This shall be limited to Kaduna State Ministry of Education between 2015 and 2020 because of resources constraints both human and non-human such as funds, time, poor response from the respondents, non-availability of information from the appropriate authority and other personal problems of the respondents.

This is the restriction imposes on the research by itself, such as dearth current literatures on the topic of discussion, gathering of relevant information, etc.

1.7     Definition of Key Terms

Civil Service Reform: Civil service reform is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods and services, with increased accountability.

Civil Service: It can be referred to the body of appointed officials who carry out the functions of government under the direction of the Head of Government.

Impact: Effect or Influence which something has over another.

Policy Implementation: It involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an action.

Policy: It is a high-level overall plan embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures especially of a governmental body.


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