The Effect of Corruption on Educational Service Delivery in Kaduna State: 2011 – 2019
This research work appraises “the effect of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State: 2011 – 2019”. This study therefore looks at what authors and scholars have said concerning the subject matter as discussed in the literature review. It identifies corruption as an obstacle to the set objectives of the educational sector in service delivery as well as the attainment of the nation’s desire for manpower and national development especially in this period of global competition. It also stressed the various links through which corruption is perpetuated in the educational sector with its impact and consequences. The researcher used survey designs to carry out the study. The sample size of the population was 80. So 80 questionnaires were administered to 80 respondents in Kaduna State. But, sixty-six (66) usable questionnaires provided the database (given an 82.5% response rate) in this study. The data obtained was analysed using frequencies and simple percentage. The data collected from Kaduna State being the case study were analysed in chapter four. The work makes recommendation on some measures to check the corrupt practices giving that the phenomenon of corruption in the Nigeria educational system remains one of the greatest obstacles to the nation’s aspirations and realization towards human capacity building for national development.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habit in an individual so that he/she becomes useful to him/herself and to the society at large. This education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, or acts may be considered educational. Formal education takes place in the school system under the guidance of educators. The invaluable roles and contributions of education in the development of individual and society cannot be overemphasized. Advancement in modern world is impossible without investment in human capital. Investment in human capital precipitates increase in knowledge gotten through training and education which have positive effect on the economy. Education therefore, begets development. Education increases the production of productive labours as it leads to high output in the economy thereby bringing about economic growth in the nation. It is stated in the National Policy on Education that education is an instrument that fosters the worth development of the individual’s sake, and for general development of the society. It favours the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around. It advocates the acquisition of appropriate skills and competencies in equipping the individual for the development of the country.
From the aforementioned goals, it could be seen that educational institution is an industry where future leaders, workers, doctors, lawyers, politicians, teachers, thinkers etc are produced. Any taint on this institution endangers the future and development of individuals and the nation at large.
Corruption and management of education with respect to the leadership and management of our education system hamstring the goals of National Policy on Education. The rate of corruption, bad leadership and mismanagement of educational resources is alarming.
Corruption is seen as a psychosocial beast that has been attacking different sectors of the society. Education having been described by the National Policy on Education (2004) as an instrument of Par Excellence is an effective tool for economic, social, cultural and political transformation and national development. It encourages social and cultural integration by inculcating an attitude of social cooperation of consciousness. The Nigerian educational system has made provision of various levels of education from the primary school level (basic education secondary school to the tertiary education , Universities inclusive) in order to service the entire populace for manpower and national development. The role of education to any nation or society especially in this Age of Globalization cannot be overemphasized. The deeming effect of corruption on the educational sector cannot be underestimated. Corruption is the abuse of public power for private gain. Bribery, misappropriation of public fund, nepotism and favouritism the formulation of laws or regulations for private gain are common examples of corruption. To fight corruption the past government particularly Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration between 2000 and 2003 introduced several measures such as the establishment of the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).
It is therefore in the light of the foregoing that this study seeks to appraise on the effect of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Presently, there is no doubt to say that schools in Nigeria has been regarded as the most patronized sector by parents as a result. This perhaps may be due to the fact that it is the foundation of the whole educational pursuit, which is expected to provide literacy and enlightenment to the citizens. The importance of education can therefore be seen in the sense that parents have chosen to send their children to private schools in other to pass examinations so as to meet up with their counterparts. (Oni, 2008). What this means is that private schools have become a special centre where parents can register their children in other to write their final examinations without stress and reading, which most of the private schools have been involved without respect to policies on educational service delivery.
Corruption, as an ethical and social problem which varies from one secondary school to another, ministry to ministry, place to place, time to time, culture to culture and with the level of economic development, is a global phenomenon that affects especially private secondary schools in Nigeria. Corruption is one of the major causes of examinational malpractices in secondary schools today using Kaduna as a case study, (Aluko, 2008). It occurs at all levels of schools in Kaduna both directly and indirectly. All over Nigeria, the perception of corruption especially in private schools is very high and uncontrollable. This is because, corruption undermines every aspect of the educational system among which are, political development, economic development, social development and so on.
It therefore in the light of the above that the study seeks to appraise the effect of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is appraise the effect of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
Other specific objectives are to:
- Identify the causes of corruption in the educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
- Find out the forms of corruption in the educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
- Determine the effects of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions formulated from the objectives of the study to guide the research:
- What are the causes of corruption in the educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019?
- What are the forms of corruption in the educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019?
- What are the effects of corruption on educational service delivery in Kaduna State from 2011 to 2019?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Research hypothesis is a tentative and predictive answer to a question which is subjected to the power of verification and its formulation can be expressed as follows:
Ho = There is no effect of corruption on educational service delivery from 2011 to 2019
H1 = There is effect of corruption on educational service delivery from 2011 to 2019
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study being “Appraisal on the Effect of Corruption on Educational Service Delivery in Kaduna State: 2011 – 2019” will enable readers and future researcher to have a clear view of the effect of corruption on educational service delivery in Nigeria.
The research will assist reader and students who might want to carry out research work on the subject matter and will also act as reference material for them.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study examined “Appraisal on the Effect of Corruption on Educational Service Delivery in Kaduna State: 2011 – 2019”.
Most research works usually come with one challenge or the other and therefore, this will not be an exemption. In projection of this study, the research work will be constrained with time as the research work is clashing with the academic workloads of the researcher.
1.8 Definitions of Key Terms
Corruption: Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.
Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
Educational Service Delivery: Improving access to education services and ensuring that students learn are essential to expanding opportunities for all citizens.
Effect: A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Service Delivery: The act of providing service to people.