EFFECT OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON WORKER’S PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF KADUNA STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
This study seeks to examine how training and development programme have affected workers performance in the Kaduna State Civil Service Commission (KSCSC). Manpower training and development is meant to improve workers performance in an organisation, but despite the efforts put forward by KSCSC to train and develop it staff, their performance is still low. The aim of this study is to find out why there is low performance despite the training programme, and also to find out how poor funding could affect the training programme. It was hypothesized that; “there is no significant relationship between manpower training and development and workers performance in KSCSC ”, that, “there is no significant relationship between the procedures used in selecting staff for training and the effectiveness of the training programmes”, and “there is no significant relationship between insufficient funding and poor manpower training and development programme in the KSCSC”. Related literatures were reviewed and an empirical study was also carried out. The Donald Kirkpatrick’s four level of learning model was adopted for this study. The questionnaires administered on the members of staff of the KSCSC were analysed using the chi-square statistical tool of analysis. Based on the analysis, the three null hypothesis formulated were rejected while the alternate hypotheses were accepted. The major findings include: training has a positive impact on worker’s performance, the procedures used in selecting staff for training affected the result of the training programme and insufficient funding led to poor manpower training programmes. The researcher recommends that, the procedures used in selecting staff for training be based on the commission’s need and the commission should source for funds through investment to augment government’s allocation.
1.1 Background to the Study
The human resource available to any nation constitutes the most important assets to that nation. All other resources namely money, machines, information, time, technology et cetera, are inanimate and therefore need to be activated by human resources. Manpower is the basic resource that is used in converting other resources to benefit a nation. So how well a nation develops it human resources is fundamental in deciding how much it could accomplish as a nation. Even in the developed world where the uses of machines are at an advanced stage, manpower is still very vital. The Nigerian government cognizant of this fact, has overtly encouraged the establishment of many institutions for the training and development of manpower.
In other words, the quality of human resource in an organization is very important as its determines whether or not the organization will be successful. As observed by Likert (1961), the activities of many enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up that institutional plants, offices, computers, automated equipment and all else that a modern firm uses except for human effort and direction of all the tasks of management, managing the human components is the central and most important task, because, all else depends on how well the human resources is developed.
Considering the tremendous importance of human resources in an organisation, every organisation therefore places great emphasis on training and development. This is in a bid to turn potential human resources into actual resources. Education provides people with knowledge, training, orientation, spirit of initiative and social responsibility which enable them to do the job of development in the circumstances in which they find themselves. There is no other way of achieving organizational goals and objective than through proper training and development which enhance optimal utilization, productivity, commitment and motivation of workers.
Nwachukwu (2005), observes that, employee productivity is a function of ability will and situational factors. An organization may have employees of ability and determination, with appropriate equipment and managerial support yet, performance falls below expectation. This is due to the fact that, they lack adequate skills, and knowledge which are acquired through training and development. Training and development could be in various forms, which include induction courses, conferences, on-the-job training, seminars and other practical methods of staff training.
Manpower training and development policies are therefore the vital ingredients for organizational advancement. Organisation exists and grows because it provides the community needs, to do this, the organisation must function at an optimum level of productivity. Its efforts, success or failure depends on the ability of the organisation to train and develop its manpower into productive, competent and skilled work-force which is capable of and willing to work towards the realization of these objectives. Manpower training and development has for long been one of the functions performed by the management, but was not given serious attention by some organisations. Many employees have failed in organisations because their need for training was not identified and provided for by the management. This reduced the performance within such establishments. This shortcoming has been attributed to poor and ineffective policies on training and development. Where there is a good and effective training and development programme and this programme is adequately administered, it could go a long way in improving productivity because training increase workers morale, improves coordination, reduces labour turnover and also it reduces cost, thereby increasing performance.
According to the guidelines for training in the Kaduna State Public Service (2005), training will be discharged by the Bureau of Establishment management services and training, that government have approved that the Bureau shall take full and overall responsibility for the management of training in the state public service. This in effect is to improve the skills and knowledge as well as increasing technical potentialities of the workers in the Kaduna State Civil Service Commission. To achieve its training and development goals, the Commission needs to go extra miles in encouraging its employees to undergo different forms of training. New employees therefore need to undergo training while existing employee must be developed from time to time so as to improve productivity.
This study, seeks to find the relationship between employee training and development in Kaduna State Civil Service Commission and employee performance, if training and development and its administration as its concerns the employees, affects their performance in the Commission. As Terraco and Swenson (1998) observed, there is a positive relationship between employee development and organizational performance, with organizations which offer an array of learning opportunities enable employees to perform better in their jobs which in turn enables the organisation as a whole to perform better as well.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Organisations are usually established to achieve defined goals and objectives. The success or otherwise of an organisation, to a large extent, is determined by the effectiveness of its manpower policies. Manpower training and development forms an integral part of any organization that wants to succeed because, it is the knowledge and skills of the employees in the organization that will determine the extent to which resources potentials may be put to work.
In Nigeria, the manpower policies of most organisations are in-accurate especially when it concerns training and development. This is the same in the civil service, and this affects performance generally.
The Kaduna state civil service commission was established to appoint, promote and to discipline staff within the state civil service. To achieve this, the commission need to put in place an adequate training and development programme which will assist in producing skilled manpower required to carry out the necessary activities in the commission. The commission in line with the above has the following training and development objectives;
- To improve the necessary knowledge and skills of its workers for the efficient performance of their official duties.
- To develop the academic/professional and technical potentials of officers, in order to prepare them for higher responsibilities in their chosen career.
- To produce a corps of highly specialized, talented and motivated officers for the efficient execution of government policies and programmes.
Judging from the above training objectives, the performance of workers in the commission should be up to expectation if really they receive the required training and development, as observed by Nwachukwu (2005) that, employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilization, productivity, commitment, motivation and growth. Thus, performance in the Kaduna state civil service commission is a function of training and development programmes of the commission. The question that comes to mind is, if the commission has a training programme with good objectives, has the implementation of this training programme been able to meet the objectives? Because, in Nigeria, organizations have policies on human resources training and development, but these policies are formulated in such ways that, they are not easily accessible to those employee for which it is intended to improve.
Apart from the fact that the need for most employees training have not been identified and provided for, the issue of funding of training programme is a factor that have crippled most training programmes in organization, Kaduna State Civil Service Commission (KSCSC) inclusive. There are situations where a number of employees exist in an organization, but there are no provisions for their training and development to enhance the efficient and effective linkage to their jobs. If organizations have employees of ability and determination, with appropriate equipment and managerial support, without adequate skills and knowledge which are acquired through training and development, performance will be below expectation. From the foregoing, the questions that are fundamental to this research work are;
- How has the manpower training and development programme effected workers performance in the KSCSC?
- How has the system for selecting staff for training causes setback to manpower training programme in the commission?
- How has the issue of funding of training programmes affected the training activities in the commission
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This seeks to examine how training and development policy in Kaduna State Civil Service Commission has affected workers performance in the Commission. The study also attempts to achieve the following specific objectives:
- To find out how the system for selecting staff for training has affected the training programmes.
- To find out the sources of finance used in training staffs in the Commission.
- To find out the extent to which training and development affects workers performance in the commission.
- To recommend solution the problem facing manpower training and development in the commission.
Hypothesis is a tentative statement subject to verification, validation or otherwise, meant to serve as a guide in a research work. For the purpose of this research work, the following hypotheses has been formulated;
i. H0: There is no significant relationship between manpower training and development and worker’s performance.
Hi: There is significant relationship between manpower training and development and worker’s performance.
ii. H0: There is no significant relationship between the procedures used in selecting staff for training and the effectiveness of the training programmes.
H1: There is significant relationship between the procedures used in selecting staff for training and the effectiveness of the training programmes.
iii. Ho: There is no significant relationship between insufficient funding and poor manpower training and development in the Kaduna State civil service commission.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between insufficient funding and poor manpower training and development in the Kaduna State Civil Service Commission.
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this study is to examine staff training and development in Kaduna State Civil Service Commission as it affects workers performance in the Commission, between 2007 and 2011.
A lot of factors serve as limitations and constraints to any research work. These could be geographical, economical, political, physical and other abstract factors in the environment. In the course of this research, the major setback is lack of documented records of staff training programmes in the Commission, as the researcher could not lay hands on any records concerning staff who have undergone training in the commission within the period understudy. Another setback faced by the researcher is the use of questionnaires, as the responses could have been manipulated by respondents. The researcher is recommending that, future researchers should apply the instrument of interview in gathering primary data for their research.
The research results, findings and recommendations are based on the assumptions of the responses of the respondents and the printed documents available to the researcher from the commission.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study determines to make necessary recommendations that would help the Kaduna State Civil Service Commission on how to evolve an effective and efficient personnel training and development policy which is vital for the realization of the Commission’s goals and objectives. This study also seeks to add to existing literature on personnel training and development if any in the commission. This study will also be useful in the areas, as it will assist researchers and students of personnel management who may want to undertake a similar study. Finally it will assist personnel managers, who desire to come out with effective and efficient manpower training and development programmes in their organisation.
The methodology of this study focuses on sources of data collection, method of analyzing the data collected, population/sample size of the study as well as administration of questionnaires.
1.7.1 Sources of Data
In order to evaluate training and development as it affects performance in Kaduna State Civil Service Commission, the researcher use two instruments of social science investigation:
- Documentary source (secondary sources);
- Interview and questionnaire (primary sources).
126.96.36.199 Primary Sources
The major instrument we used to collect and assemble primary data for this research work is systematic observation which is being achieved through interview and administration of questionnaire.
188.8.131.52 Secondary Sources
Much useful information related to this study is derived from published works which serve as source of secondary data. These include published materials, journals, reports, statistical data etc. The following information will be obtained through these sources;
- The commission staff training and development programmes and objective;
- Achievement of the commission in its staff training and development programmes within the period under study.
1.7.2 Population/Sample Size of the Study
The population size is the total number of workers in the commission, while the sample size is a portion of the population which the researcher intends to use as representation of the total population.
The total population of the commission as at when the researcher visited the commission was 91. The researcher use 68% of the total population which is;
68_ x 91 100 1 = 61.8 = 62 This can be represented on table as:
Population sample and sample size of the study
Source: Kaduna State Civil Service Commission Staff Record, 2012.
1.7.3 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
The primary and secondary data collected will be transformed into new and relevant functions through proper analysis. The researcher used qualitative and quantitative method of analysis, but with more emphasis on the quantitative method through tables, mathematical calculations, questionnaires and percentage and the Chi-Square statistical tool of analysis to facilitate easy comprehension to future researcher on this research work.
1.7.4 Administration of Questionnaires
The questionnaire designed for this study is administered using the random sampling technique on the employees in the Kaduna State Civil Service Commission. Sampling as used here refers to the procedure by which the researcher takes a portion of the total population.
The researcher administered questionnaire on 68% of the total number of workers of the civil service based on a random sampling system. This is a random sampling of 62 selected staffs of the commission.
The questionnaire was divided in a manner in which 42 were issued to senior staff and 20 to junior staff.
Table showing questionnaire administered on staff of KSCSC.
This is represented in the table below:
Number of person
Number of questionnaire
Source: Research survey, 2012.
The questionnaires were designed and administered by the researcher to the respondents. The respondents were given a time limit within which to fill the questionnaires. The questions contained therein are of different types and structure.
The researcher used a close ended questions that is, the use of options. The reason for this is to;
- Help ensure that answers are given in a frame relevant to the purpose of the enquiry;
- Give broad coverage of question thereby providing greater information as required by the investigation.
- Give room to standard questions which are simple to administer, quick and easy to analyse.
- Enable easy tabulation of answers.
- Make clear the dimension along which answers are sought.
1.8 Definition of Key Concepts
This refers to the quality and quantity of human labour force that is available within an economy or government as well as an organisation at a particular point in time.
According to Nwachukwu (2005), training is organization’s effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the efficient execution of the functions for which he was hired.
Nwachukwu (2005), sees development as the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy.
From the above definition, we can look at development as the process of broadening employees perceptions, views and out-look in preparation for greater responsibilities.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000) defined performance as how well or badly something works, the act or process of performing a task, an action etc.
This is also referred to individual employees productivity, it aim to attain output from economic application of resources to maintain efficient operation in all activities and from all laid down rules in a marketing or manufacturing programmes.
1.8.5 Civil Service Commission
Civil Service Commission is a government department in the Civil Service that is constituted by legislature to regulate the recruitment and working conditions of Civil Servants, oversee, hiring and promotion, and dismissal of civil servant.
1.9 Plan of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter contains a general background on staff training and development and the problems inherent in staff training in the Kaduna State civil service commission. This chapter also contain the objectives of the study, hypothesis to be tested, scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study, methodology of the study, definition of key concept used in the study and the plan of the study respectively.
Chapter two consist of literature review on manpower training, objective of manpower training and development, the types of training, the importance of training and development to employee and organizational performance. Empirical study of Training and development was also discussed. The last part of this chapter is the theoretical framework of the study.
Chapter three consist of introduction, origin of Kaduna State Civil Service Commission, objectives of the Commission, the structure of the commission, function of the department major problems facing the Commission and solutions to the problems.
Chapter four consists of the presentation and analysis of data, analysis of returned questionnaires and major findings.
Chapter five which is the last chapter in the study contains the summary, conclusions, recommendation and references.
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