IMPACT OF GOOD GOVERNANCE ON NIGERIA DEMOCRACY FROM 1979 TO 2020
This study examined “Impact of Good Governance in Nigeria Democracy from 1979 to 2020”. Objectively, the study assessed the fundamental elements of good governance, the relationship between these fundamental elements and the impact of good governance, the factors affecting impact of good governance and the ways forward for the factors affecting the impact of good governance. Descriptive survey design method was used in the study. The sample size of 400 was gotten from the population using Taro Yamene formula. 400 questionnaires were distributed to 400 respondents out which 278 were found valid representing 69.5% response rate for the database. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS data analysis program version 17. The reliability correlation coefficient obtained was 0.984, which was an indication of the reliability of the instrument. In the analysis of the 30 variables, 29 were accepted because they had mean values greater than acceptance region format of 3.0. The findings revealed that accountability, transparency, predictability, openness and adherence to rule of law are the fundamental elements of good governance; … . In testing the hypotheses, it was found that accountability, transparency, predictability, openness and adherence to rule of law enhance impact of good governance. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendation given that accountability, transparency, predictability, openness and adherence to rule of law should be central to good governance for maximum impact and the factors affecting the impact of good governance should be checked for sustainable socio-economic development in Nigeria democracy.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The history of Nigeria’s democratization began at independence with the adoption of democratic institutions modeled on the British Westminster parliamentary system. Under this system, the prime minister who was the leader of the party with majority seats in the parliament was the substantive Head of Government at the centre (Federal) while the President was a mere ceremonial Head from independence onwards, Nigeria has been grappling with the task of entrenching the culture of democracy in governance through its provisions in the independence constitution of 1960; and the Republican constitution of 1963. These constitutions have prescribed the British-modeled Westminster parliamentary system for the country (Abubakar, 2004).
After independence, the new political elite had the duty of not only institutionalizing the democratic process but for developing a political culture, which would buttress the inherited institutions from the British colonial authority. There were therefore, high hopes at independence of Nigeria emerging as a fertile and large field for the growth of democracy and good governance in Africa. However, by the end of 1965, it became obvious that the future of democracy and good governance in the country had become un-welcome. In January, 1966, the military aborted the new democratic experiment in a bloody coup d’etat. The military, subsequently, held on to power for almost 33 years after the 1966 coup except for some flashes of civil rule between 1979 and 1983; and 1987-1989. In 1979, Nigeria adopted the Presidential system of government modeled after the American system in preference to the British parliamentary system (Mohammed, 2008).
Nigerian’s short-lived democratic experiment after independence could be attributed to the following factors among others:
Breakdown of the rules of the game of politics, which profusely polluted the political stadium and made politics as dangerous for players as well as spectators;
Gross misuse of political power among public officers including impudent political and economic decisions in allocation of scarce but a beatable resources;
Erosion of the rights of individuals;
Disenfranchisement of the Nigerian populace through blatant rigging of elections;
Conspicuous consumption of politicians amidst the abject poverty of the masses; and
Excessively powerful regional governments, which threatened the relatively weak federal centre with wanton abandon (Elaigwu, 2011).
These challenges made it difficult for the first democratic government in Nigeria under the prime minister ship of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa to build a solid democratic culture and good governance. Indeed, for a country that was granted independence without a strong economic base as well as porous democratic culture it was expected that the military and the political elite would have been more cautious because it was a period of learning the state of the art of democracy. This was the period when democratic institutions were expected to be established and democratic culture accepted and imbibed by the state actors and civil society at large. As Mohammed (2008) cited in Yio (2011) observed, in this phase, success and goal attainment depend on how quick the leaders and the society learn to work on the basis of democratic principles and practices. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, politics were not driven by nationalistic and class consciousness but by primordial sentiments of ethnicity, religion, regionalism, etc with the consequent deepening of poverty and under development in the country.
In light of the above, the study seeks to investigate “Impact of Good Governance in Nigeria Democracy from 1979 to 2020”.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Democratic politics and good governance did not fare better in the Second Republic as well as the Third Republic. But since 29 May, 1999, when the Fourth Republic was ushered in, politicians in government have continued to use the phrase “dividends of democracy” which refer to the provisions of material welfare to the people, such as roads, rural electrification, potable water, improved educational and health facilities, housing, amongst others. However, it is pertinent to note that democracy and good governance in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world cannot be achieved through the mere provisions of material welfare such as roads, jobs, food, electricity, education, health care services and others since they are even easier to provide under authoritarian rule. As Elaigwu (2011) observed:
Democracy provides rights to groups and individuals. It presupposes the right or freedom of expression by the individual. When this is allowed under democracy, the government will be more accountable to the people as of right. In addition, people can insist on transparency in government business and with this, leaders in government can no longer violate citizen’s fundamental rights with impunity. Indeed, successive governments in Nigeria since independence have failed to expand the frontiers of freedom or liberty and respect for human and individual rights, which are the core values of democracy and clear indices of good governance. In the country’s 55 years of political independence, none of the two experimented models of democracy i.e. the Parliamentary system, and the Presidential system, have been able to internalize democratic culture and good governance. There are critical challenges militating against the enthronement of democracy and good governance in Nigeria, which demand attention. This, then, underscores the concern of this study, “Impact of Good Governance in Nigeria Democracy”.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study:
- What are the fundamental elements of good governance?
- What is the relationship between these fundamental elements and the impact of good governance?
- Was there impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020?
- What were the factors affecting the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020?
- What are the ways forward for the factors affecting the impact of good governance in Nigeria?
1.4 Objectives of the Research
The main objective of the research is to investigate the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020. The other specific objectives are to:
- Find out the fundamental elements of good governance.
- Examine the relationship between these fundamental elements and the impact of good governance.
- Find out if there was impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
- Examine the factors affecting the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
- Identify the ways forward for the factors affecting the impact of good governance in Nigeria.
1.5 Hypothesis of the Research
Research hypothesis is a tentative and predictive answer to a question which is subjected to the power of verification and its formulation can be expressed in: (Kabir, 2016)
- Null Hypothesis (Ho)
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
Since hypothesis is statistical method of testing the attributes of predictive condition, we can test the study under the following hypotheses:
H11: Accountability enhances impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
H12: Transparency enhances the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
H13: Predictability enhances the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
H14: Openness enhances the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
H15: Rule of Law enhances the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
H16: There is positive relationship between fundamental elements and the impact of good governance.
1.6 Significance of the Research
It is timely to carry out this study in view of the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020. Many people are doll founded about what is happening in Nigeria, if at all our leaders practice good governance. People are dissatisfied with the democracy practiced in Nigeria because of the factors affecting good governance.
The study shall unravel the factors affecting good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020.
The findings of the study will assist political scientists and policy makers in finding a better way of improving good governance in Nigeria democracy.
Also, the study will be relevant to political scientists and other students who may conduct similar study in the future. It will also serve as a reference material for researchers seeking to write on related subject matter and as well as information specialists, research centers, information documentation centre’s, policy makers and Government agencies.
1.7 Scope of the Research
This study is limited to the examination of the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020. The research study therefore covers the concept of good governance and democracy, democracy and good governance in Nigeria, governance and good governance, and good governance – the missing link in Nigeria. Basically, the study focused attention on selected individuals of reputable personalities in Kaduna State who are vast about good governance and democracy in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The present study has some limitations. The first limitation is that, even though there are so many books, journals, articles written by renowned scholars on governance but that on impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from the first to the fourth republic is too uncommon. One other shortcoming of this study is that, data were collected only in Kaduna State Nigeria, which might not be generalized.
Similarly, this study was cross-sectional in nature. It involves data collection within three months, which can be considered as short period due to limited resources and time. Sekaran (2003) asserted that one of the shortcomings of cross-sectional study is the inability to prove cause and effect association among variables. The framework of this study only provides a relationship between the variables, but did not provide a deep understanding of the cause and effect of such a relationship.
The present study relies on the perception of people on good governance and democracy, this is quite common with social science research, but the response of people may not necessarily be a precise reflection of reality. There is the likely tendency that the data collected may reflect some degree of confidence of the respondents who might have their own perceptual biases and cognitive shortcomings in assessing impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from the first to the fourth republic.
Despite these shortcomings, the present study is a good effort to investigate impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy, 1979 to 2020. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind.
1.9 Justification of the Study
Governance is as old as human civilization and its concept is not new. However, the practical aspect of governance is still new and the communities which needs a literature explanation continuously. However, serious actions and efforts have been taken by various parties like government, academician and professional to strengthen and realize the public sector governance particularly through the practice of good governance.
The term “good governance” still remains to some extent controversial for some African countries. However the importance of good governance in Africa has clearly pointed by the following point that is: UNDP and World Bank (2018) reports have clearly indicated that without good governance sustainable development is not possible.
Good governance is the key for development and prosperity. It is the critical factor in poverty reduction as well as in achieving development objective. However, the current challenges associated with good governance are unbearable due to factors such as corruption, conflict, level of education, democracy, population size, peace years, unemployment, life expectancy, service delivery, and bureaucratic bottlenecks among others. Good governance could be advanced and realized when it is well designed and practiced. It also will be realized when multiparty politics is well enforced; the state is held accountable; free, fair and periodic election is conducted and human and political rights are respected. In addition, enforcement of rule of law, inclusion of civil societies, transparent policy making, efficient, and citizen participation on local rule and regulations are important attribute of good governance.
Considering the aforesaid points the present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of good governance in Nigeria democracy from 1979 to 2020
1.10 Organization of the Research
This research was presented in a sequential manner of five chapters. Chapter one provided background to the study, introduction, statement of the research problem, research questions, objectives of the research, hypothesis of the research, significance of the research, scope of the research, that is, the area covered during the study, limitation of the study as well as justification of the study. The next chapter, that is, chapter two provided introduction of literature review, conceptual framework of democracy, good governance, as well as bad governance, empirical framework and the relevant literature related to accountability, transparency, predictability, openness and rule of law as fundamental elements of good governance, democracy and good governance in Nigeria, governance and good governance, good governance – the missing link in Nigeria, and the challenges or factors affecting good governance in Nigeria.
Chapter three offered the methodology for this study, which include introduction, sources and method of data collection, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, theoretical analysis, data analysis techniques, data accuracy and reliability and model specification. Chapter four provided data presentation and analysis which include introduction, presentation of descriptive results based on response rate of the questionnaire distributed; sex, age, educational distribution of the respondents as well as occupational distribution; results of random variables; discussion of descriptive results from primary data and testing of hypothesis. The concluding chapter, which is chapter five focused on providing discussion of the results, which include introduction, summary of findings, conclusion, recommendations, and contribution to knowledge as well as suggestion for further studies.
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