PERSONNEL WELFARE AS AN INCENTIVE FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION
The focus of this study is to examine: “Personnel Welfare as an Incentive for Higher Productivity in Public Organization” with reference to Kaduna Polytechnic as a case study. The study adopted survey approach in its design. The research used a sample of 100 staff, both academic and non-academic, of Kaduna Polytechnic. The major instrument of data collection was a five point Likert scale questionnaire. Data analysis was based on 100 questionnaires that were accurately filled and returned. The statistical tools for data analysis are simple percentage and mean (X) with acceptance region format of 2.5 using SPSS version 17. This study concludes that personnel welfare (schemes) are truly observed in Kaduna Polytechnic as an incentive for higher productivity.
1.1 Background of the Study
In this era of Globalization, market economy, hyper competition and rapid changing environment, the success of an organization depends on the personnel performance. Personnel performance is an essential requirement if an organization is to maintain its efforts towards the realization of predesigned goals. According to Human Resource Philosophy, personnel are the most important business resource that must be managed carefully in order to maximize return on investment and achieve business objectives. Organizations have to provide various benefits to ensure personnel welfare is taken care of. In fact, in this age and era it is almost impossible to operate an organization without offering a basic set of benefits for personnel welfare. Welfare is concerned with the total wellbeing of personnel both at work and at home. Armstrong (2004) states that personnel welfare programs rest mainly on the abstract ground of social responsibility on organizations for those who work for them. Organizations need highly performing personnel in order to meet their goals to deliver the products and services they specialize in and hence achieve competitive advantage. According to Gayle and Brock (2004) Organizations provide welfare facilities to their personnel to keep their motivation levels high. The personnel welfare programs can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and non-statutory welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing personnel health and safety. The non-statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry. The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to increase a healthy, loyal and productive workforce, create efficient and satisfied labour force for the organization, promote healthy organizational relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.
The term welfare suggests the state of well being and implies wholesomeness of the human being. It is a desirable state of existence involving the mental, physical, moral and emotional factor of a person. Adequate levels of earnings, safe and humane conditions of work and access to some minimum social security benefits are the major qualitative dimensions of employment which enhance quality of life of workers and their productivity. Institutional mechanisms exist for ensuring these to workers in the organized sector of the economy. These are being strengthened or expanded to the extent possible. However, workers in this sector are to be studied periodically, whether they are satisfied with the welfare provided by the companies, as welfare schemes are directly dependant on the economy of the companies. Steps need to be taken on a larger scale than before to improve the quality of public life of the workers, including women personnel. Labour welfare is a key to improve employer-personnel relations.
In order to increase labour welfare, employers offer extra incentives, health benefits, medical benefits and other schemes to make workers to accept mechanization. The performance of personnel is critical to the survival of the production process in organizations (Namuddu, 2010). Whether in educational or corporate settings, it is with array that such production processes are supported by a well streamlined and purpose driven human labour which is willing and determined to challenge its self to the maximum to meet set challenges (Emojong, 2004). In the general view, organizations should have interest in igniting this fire through different strategies such as motivation, retention, and development. Among these are: remuneration, compensation, incentives and welfare. The welfare strategy is considered vital because the quality of teachers is crucial to any education system (Kitunga, 2009). This study however will throw more light on personnel welfare as an incentive for higher productivity in public organization with Kaduna Polytechnic as a Case Study.
1.2 Historical Background of Kaduna Polytechnic
Kaduna Polytechnic has grown from a humble beginning in 1956 when it started as “Kaduna Technical Institution” to what is today the largest Polytechnic in Africa South of the Sahara in term of staff, student population and physical infrastructure. It is the second oldest technological institutions in Nigeria, the oldest being Yaba College of Technology which was established in 1948. Kaduna Polytechnic is also the largest tertiary institution after Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
The conception of technical institutions in Northern Nigeria was muted as far back as 1951. Five years later this idea resulted in the establishment of Kaduna Technical Institutions in 1956; this was a result of the acceptance by the British Government of the recommendation of the Higher Education Commission that suggests the upgrading of Yaba College of Technology to an Institution and proposed the establishment of Technology institute in Kaduna and Enugu. In 1956, the Kaduna Technology institute took off with the following mandate:
- To operate in fields other than those of the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology.
- To train Engineering Assistants (Technicians).
- To promote “Feeders” for the Nigerian College of Arts Science and Technology as much as possible but not exclusively.
- To provide courses leading to a standard of the ordinary National Diploma Certificate in the United Kingdom.
It was envisaged that the courses would be raised to the standard equivalent to Higher National Certificate and Diploma Candidate admitted to junior Technical Programmed (comparable to the Secondary Technical Schools in England) was to run for four years after which students were to be awarded Building Engineering and Commerce. Provision was also made for students to prepare for the City and Guilds examination in several subjects. These were electrical Installation, Telecommunication subjects, Sheet Metal public. Carpentry wood, Mechanist, Brick Workmanship, Painting, Training and General Crafting in Wood, Metal, Pottery, Weaving, Leather and Book Binding.
The Commercial Department of the Kaduna Technical was also opened in 1956 with the objectives of Teaching Commercial subjects to meet the shortage of trained Clerical staff. The junior Commercial courses were run for two years in residence and successful candidates were awarded Junior Certificate. The Senior Commercial courses were run for one year with the students selected form the junior course. The successful candidates were awarded the Senior Commercial Certificate. Subjects taught in both courses were English language, Book-keeping, shorthand, Typewriting, Commerce, History, Economics and Elements of Mercantile law.
By 1959/60, evening courses were held twice weekly (Mondays and Thursday) for beginning students who were in Clerical employment and had been educated to middle II standard or had a certificate in English Language of the Royal Society of Arts or its equivalent. Elementary courses were offered for students who had completed courses in the Theory of Pitman’s Shorthand while intermediate courses were offered for students who had certificate in shorthand at the speed of not less than 70 w.p.m.
The northern Nigeria Executive Council be conclusion No. 1 at its meeting of 17th August, 1962, re-designated the Kaduna Technical Institute as the Polytechnic Kaduna. It became Kaduna Polytechnic in 1968 under the Federal Government Decree No. 20 of 1963 which was amended in 1979 by Decree No. 734 on 27th August, 1991; the Federal Government took over the institution under Decree No. 40 of the same year.
The institution was established with object of providing diverse instructions, trainings and research in technology, the sciences, commerce, the humanities and in-service programmed for members of the public service in 1968, it amalgamated two formerly independent Training Centre namely the College of Science of Administrative and Business Studies (formerly Staff Development Centre). The College of Environmental Studies (formerly Survey Unit) was integrated in April 1970 to complete the three collegiate structure of the Polytechnic which operated until 1990.
In 1990, the College of Engineering was created out of the College of Sciences and Technology. Also, in 2006, the College of Administrative and Business Studies was split into two Colleges- College of Business and Management Studies and College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences.
The Polytechnic is highly cosmopolitan with students admitted for all over Nigeria and other countries. It has been in the forefront in the training of high and middle level manpower for the various sectors of the nation’s economy.
Form a modest figure of 158 students in 1961 at the Technical Institute, student courses on part-time, while 300 were on full time programs. Currently, the 36 academic departments in five colleges. The courses vary in duration and character, ranging form certificate, Diploma, National Diploma, Higher National Diploma as well as NCE (technology) and B Ed (technology) which is run in affiliation with the Federal University of Technology, Minna.
The uniqueness of the curricula covered under the various programmers is the emphasis on practical to ensure that a graduate acquires the right skill required by government, industry and commence or self employment.
Kaduna Polytechnic has mounted a number of post programmes and post HND programmes. In 1995, the polytechnic started the first ever NBTE approved post HND programme Electronics and communication Engineering.
College, Schools, Departments and Programmes
The polytechnic has 5 colleges, 12 schools, 38 departments and 138 programmed as follows:
- College of Science and Technology (CST)
The college is located in the Main campus Tudun-Wada, Kaduna.
The college has two (2) schools with seven departments namely:
- School of Science and Technical Education
The school has the following departments:
- Applied Science.
- Math’s, Statistic and Computer Science.
- Education (technical)
- School of Technology
Under this school, there are the following departments:
- Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism Management.
- Food Technology.
- Textile Technology & Fashion Design.
- Printing Technology.
The college runs the following programmes:
- ND & HND in Science Lab Technology
- ND & HND in Computer Science
- ND &HND in Statistic
- ND & HND in Food Technology
- ND & HND in Nutrition & Dietetic
- ND & HND in Hospitality Management
- ND & HND in Leisure and Tourism Management
- Certificate, Advanced Certificate, ND & HND in Textile Technology
- ND & HND in Fashion Design
- ND, HND & POST-HND in Printing Technology
- NCE (Technical), B.E.D (Technology) in affiliation with Federal University of Technology Minna, PGD in Education (Technical), PGD in Education
- in Nursing Education
- in Primary Health CarE
B. College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences (CASSS)
The college of administration studies and social sciences (CASSS) is located at by pass campus along Kashia road. It is 18 kilometers from Tudun campus, 15 kilometers from business and management studies (CBMS) and 8 kilometers from college of environmental studies (CES).
CASSS was carved out of the former College of Administration and Business Studies (CABS) in the year 2005.
The college has two schools nine departments:
1. School of Administrative Studies comprise:
- Department of Public Administration
- Department of Local Government Studies
- Department of Legal Studies
2. School of Social Science Comprise:
- Department of Social Development
- Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
- Department of Library and Information Sciences
- Department of Social Sciences
- Department of Language
- Department of Mass Communication
The college runs the following programmes:
- ND & HND & PGD in public administration
- PGD in Public Accounting & Auditing
- ND & HND in Local Government Studies
- ND &HND Library and Information Sciences
- ND & HND in Social Development
- PGD in International Relations and Diplomacy
- PGD in Criminology
- Intermediate & Advance Certificate and Diploma in Arabic, French & Hausa
- Intermediate Certificate, Diploma and Higher Diploma in Rehabilitation Science
- HD & HND Mass Communication
- Civil Service Exam Unit
C. College of Environmental Studies (CES)
The college is located along Aliyu Makama Road, Barnawa, Kaduna. This college is made up of two schools and seven departments:
- School of Geodesy and Land Administration:
- Environmental Sciences
- Estate Management
- Topographic Science
- School of Environmental Design:
With the following departments;
- Urban and Regional Planning
- Quantity Surveying
The college the following programmes:
- Professional Diploma in Surveying and Geoinformatic
- ND & HND in Surveying and Geoinformatics
- ND & HND in Building
- ND,HND & POST-HND (Professional Diploma) in Urban and Regional Planning
- ND & HND in Architecture
- ND & HND in Quantity Surveying
- ND Environmental & Industrial Safety
- HND Environmental Technology
- ND & HND in Estate Management
D. College of Business and Management Studies (CBMS)
The college is located along Golf Course road, Ungwar Rimi, Kaduna. nThe college has two schools and eight departments, namely:
- School Business and Financial Studies:
- Banking and Finance
- Business Administration
- Purchasing and Supply
- School of Management Studies
With the following departments:
- Cooperative Economic and Management
- Office Technology and Management
- Management Studies
The college runs the following programmes:
- ND & HND in Accounting
- ND, HND & PGD in Business Administration
- ND, HND & PGD in Cooperative Economic & Mgt
- HND & PGD in Production Operation Mgt
- PGD in Management Science
- PGD & HND in Human Resources Mgt
- HND in Marketing
- HD & HND in Office Technology and Mgt
- ND in Backing and Finance
- HND in Purchasing & Supply
E. The College of Engineering (CEO)
The college is located in the main campus, Tudun-Wada, Kaduna.
- School of Industrial Engineering;
With the department of:
- Electrical/Electronics Engineering
- Chemical Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Computer Engineering
- School of Natural Resources Engineering;
With the departments of:
- Civil Engineering
- Agriculture Engineering
- Mineral Resources Engineering
The college runs the following programmes;
- ND, HND &POST-HND Electrical/Electronic Engineering
- ND & HND Chemical Engineering
- ND & HND Agric. Engineering
- ND & HND Mechanical Engineering
- ND mineral Resources Engineering
- HND mineral Processing Engineering
- HND Mining Engineering
- HND Geological Engineering
- ND & HND in Computer Engineering
- HD &HND in Civil Engineering.
The five colleges of Kaduna Polytechnic are located within Kaduna metropolis. The college of science and technology (CST) and the college of Engineering (COE) are located on the main campus in Tudun Wada; the college of business and management studies (CBMS) along the golf course road Ungwar-Rimi.
The body charged with the general supervision and control of the polytechnic is the governing council .which consist of the representative for government is governing council .which consist of representative for government and private sectors.
Principal Officers of Kaduna Polytechnic:
The rector is the chief Academic and Administrative officers of the polytechnic. He is assisted by two deputy Rectors (i e Academics and Admin. The Registrar is the Head of Administration Staff of the institution) He is also the secretary to the government council, Academic Board and all sub-committees of the council, other principal officers are the polytechnic Librarian and the Bursar.
The principal officers and other key officers are as follows:
- Ag Rector
- Deputy Rector Academics
- Deputy Rector Administration
- Polytechnic Librarian
- Director CST
- Director CES
- Director CBMS
- Director CEO
- Director CASSS
- Director Academic Planning
- Director Medical Service
- Director Works and Service
- Director Physical and Planning
- Director Special Duties
- Director CTEED.
The student affairs division in the central administration is under the office of the registrar and is headed by the deputy registrar (student affairs).
The function of the division includes:
Central co-ordination of all the student affairs and general various colleges.
Welfare Section takes care of physical and emotional needs of students through sports.
Guidance and Counseling Section for guidance and counseling on general and religious aspect.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Personnel are hired as a whole person not just their skills. This implies that whatever that affects any aspect of their personality has its consequences on their ability to deliver on the task for which they are hired. Be that as it may, most organizations feel that paying a competitive wage rate is enough to stimulate and sustain the commitment of the personnel to duty. While this notion is not totally false as it may meet their economic need, it may not necessarily meet the psycho-social needs of the personnel and this can create a snag on their ability to satisfactorily perform their duties. Making personnel part of organizational decision processes makes them own its outcomes. Where personnel are separated from decision making processes, it may hinder their total commitment and participation in team processes and this can affect team’s performance negatively.
In a public organization, the objective of the organization is to satisfy its personnel. Only those organizations which can keep their personnel happy will achieve their long term goals. And by providing good facility to its personnel we can get better outcome. The facilities such as latrines and urinals, drinking water, washing and bathing facilities, creches, rest shelters and canteen, arrangements for prevention of fatigue, health services including occupational safety, uniform and protective clothing and shift allowances. Personnel needs are always high than that fulfilled by employer. Personnel welfare procedures are regarded to be a good investment by employer for improving organizational efficiency and to achieve the long term goals of the organization. Each and every organization should give first priority to their personnel. When personnel are happy definitely efficiency of these personnel as well as outcome of the organization will be productive. Personnel health is the most important thing in every organization. Each and every personnel should be healthy so that they can perform work properly and can give their best.
The problem of this study is therefore to examine Personnel Welfare as an Incentive for Higher Productivity in Public Organization using Kaduna Polytechnic as a case study. However more light shall be shed on the dimensions of personnel welfare schemes such as economic services, recreational services and facilitative services so as to understand the subject matter.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine Personnel Welfare as an Incentive for Higher Productivity in Public Organization. Its specific objectives include:
- To examine economic welfare scheme as a determinant of personnel proficiency in Kaduna Polytechnic
- To examine personnel recreational welfare scheme as a determinant of their productivity in Kaduna Polytechnic
- To examine facilitative welfare scheme as a determinant of personnel organizational citizenship behavior in Kaduna Polytechnic
1.5 Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following questions;
- To what extent does economic welfare scheme determine personnel proficiency in Kaduna Polytechnic?
- Does personnel recreational welfare scheme determine personnel productivity in Kaduna Polytechnic?
- How does facilitative welfare scheme determine personnel organizational citizenship behavior in Kaduna Polytechnic?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study lies in the benefit that the findings would provide to many individuals, groups and organization a very good source of literature review material for any study relevant to the topic.
Secondly, organization will certainly find this project very useful in understanding the nature of personnel welfare as an incentive for higher productivity in public organization.
Lastly, it is also believed that the study will be of benefit to the reader who likes to have better knowledge of personnel welfare scheme on how to meet the challenges facing public organization.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study appraises Personnel Welfare as an Incentive for Higher Productivity in Public Organization, but was carried out in Kaduna Polytechnic.
Most research works usually come with one challenge or the other and therefore, this will not be an exemption. In projection of this study, the research work will be constrained by time as the research work is clashing with the academic workloads of the researcher.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Personnel: According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, “a body of persons usually employed (as in a factory or organization)”. Cambridge Dictionary puts it as “the people who are employed in a company, organization, or one of the armed forces”.
Welfare: the state of doing well especially in respect to good fortune, happiness, well-being, or prosperity.
Personnel Welfare: the efforts to make life worth living for workmen. According to Todd, personnel welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or social, of the personnel over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry.
Incentive: a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something or a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment.
Productivity: the effectiveness of productive effort, especially in industry, as measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input.
Organization: an organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business or government department.
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