Apr 10, 2020 No Comments ›› OpenBook



The research work focuses on graduate unemployment and how the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) has helped in curbing it in Kaduna State. The work is aimed at determining the cause and effect of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria, highlight various policies and programmes put in place by the Government to curb unemployment, assess the National Directorate of Employment and find out problems (if any) hindering the effective performance of the directorate and provide possible solutions. Data was collected from both primary and secondary data while the systematic sampling method was used in determining the sample size and the opportunistic sampling method was used in its administration. Statistical tables and charts were used in the data analysis. It was discovered that inadequate awareness and poor funding of the activities of the NDE in Kaduna State undermined its activity, and that skills acquisition is an effective tool in reducing graduate unemployment. Consequently, specific skills acquisition schemes have been recommended as elements that could empower unemployed graduates; that specific skills acquisition schemes should be included in the curriculum of post-secondary schools. Organising symposia, seminars and using the media were some of the recommendations made for improvement on the awareness of the activities of the National Directorate of Employment.




1.1 Background of the Study

The global economic depression which started in the early 1980’s has caused a rapid deterioration in Nigeria’s economy industrial output has become very low and commercial activities are hull leading to loss of employment by thousands of Nigerians through retrenchment and rationalization in many industries. Furthermore, the formal educational sector continued to turn out a teaming of graduates annually without a matching increase in employment opportunities.

This trend was confirmed by the labour force survey conducted by the national manpower board in 1966/67. The situation had become so bad that by the end of 1985 the unemployment situation had reached desperate and alarming proportions (10%-12%) not only in the urban area but also in the rural area while 1974 was limited to the urban centers. The resultant effect is the increase in different kinds of antisocial activities such as house breaking, armed robbery drugs trafficking etc.

In an effort to redress the situation and stem the tide of increase anti-social activities arising from youth unemployment January 1987 set up the national directorate of employment (NDE) with the aim of institutionalizing the schemes to support the self-employment aspirations of the Nigerian youths.

Various development plans had it as an objective to effectively solve the problems of unemployment.  This has led to the initiation of various agricultural development programmes.

Banks and industries were set up in the rural areas to give jobs to the rural dwellers many other programmes and polices were established but were not effective enough as to restructure the economy. Privatization and commercialization of certain government establishment led to workers being laid off from their jobs resulting in greater unemployment.  This situation then made it necessary for the establishment of national directorate of employment (N.D.E) to combat the grooming problems of unemployment.             

1.2 Statement of the Problems

The problem of unemployment in Nigerian is becoming more unbearable as it is threatening the Nigerian economy where people find it difficult to survive. An alarming structure of unemployment emerged with the rising joblessness amongst graduates of tertiary institutions. The problem now is finding solution (s) to unemployment problems in Nigeria.

The government on the other hand decided to alleviate this problem by embarking on self-employment schemes as one of the measures to solve the problems.

However, inspite of the government effort to alleviate the problems of unemployment, the menace still persist because not all unemployed could be deployed in the government self employment schemes provided.     

1.3 Objectives of the Study

      The specific objective for the study includes the following

  1. To identify the programmes of NDE in resolving unemployment problems
  2. To find out problems encountered by the NDE in solving unemployment problems in Nigeria
  3. To determine the contributions of NDE towards resolving the issue of unemployment in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of unemployment in Nigeria?
  2. What programmes has NDE adopted in order to alleviate the unemployment problems?
  3. What are the constraints militating against the success of NDE?
  4. What is the impact of NDE on the Nigeria economy?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

H0: NDE has not contributed significantly in curbing unemployment in Nigeria.

H1: NDE has contributed significantly in curbing unemployment in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help people especially those in the labour force to understand better how the problems of unemployment could be solved through the programmes and activities of NDE.

It will also help to awaken in young school leavers their desire to seek solution to their unemployment or joblessness through NDE programmes.

The benefits to the government is that it help the government to assess past policy measure for solving unemployment problems

It will also help the policy formulator to formulate polices and recommend strategies towards solving unemployment situation in Nigeria.

Similarly it will help government to design acquisition and self-employment programmes targeted at millions of Nigerian school leavers.It will also help to achieve overall economic development through adequate labour employment in the country.

Through its training acquisition programme the public especially the school leavers will be able to prepare those involved towards acquiring the required employment skills.

Youths who before training possess no marketable or employable skill set wage employment or establish their own enterprises upon graduation from NOAS training scheme.

It goes a long way in providing employment for the school leavers who might have been under the NDE programmes.

The NDE promotes graduate employment through a range of training scheme and attitudinal re-orientation to explore self-employment and self-reliance as an alternative to limited opportunities for paid employment.  The organization is promoting long-term structural change in employment expectation and job search practiced by graduates.   

1.7 Scope of the Study

This research covers the contribution of NDE  in Kaduna State. It attempts to assess the extent to which NDE  has made effort to lessen the intensity of unemployment in Kaduna State.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The main constraint of the research is divided into 3 parts. They are time finance and the attitude of the respondents.

Time Constraints:Due to the time given for this study the researcher could not get all the required information needed for the study

Finance:The researcher has not got enough money to embark on this study due to money constraints the researcher could not visit places where necessary information relevant to the study could be obtained.

Attitude of the Respondent:  The attitude of the respondents limits research work because some of the respondents were unwilling to corporate with the researcher because they felt they have nothing to benefit from the study both financially and otherwise.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

Unemployment: is a situation in which able-bodied people who are looking for a job cannot find a job.

Cyclical Unemployment:Thisoccurs when there is not enough aggregate demand in the economy to provide jobs for everyone who wants to work. 

Structural Unemployment: This occurs when a labour market is unable to provide jobs for everyone who wants one because there is a mismatch between the skills of the unemployed workers and the skills needed for the available jobs. 

Frictional Unemployment:This is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another.

Hidden Unemployment:This is the unemployment of potential workers that are not reflected in official unemployment statistics, due to the way the statistics are collected.

Technological Unemployment: This is referred to the way in which steady increases in labour productivity mean that fewer workers are needed to produce the same level of output every year.

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