THE IMPACT OF INTER-GOVERNMENT RELATIONS ON THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A Case Study of Kaduna South Local Government Area)
Over the years local government has suffered an un-cordial relationship from the state and federal government. This project work titled: “The Impact of Inter-governmental Relations on the Political Development of Nigeria with reference to Kaduna South Local Government Area as a Case Study” is termed to study the kind of relationships that exist between the local government and other tiers of government. It also terms to know the definition and conceptual meaning of inter-governmental relationship, the objective, the significance, the scope and limitation of inter-governmental relation. It also terms to study the machineries put in place to ensure cordial and harmonious relationship between local government and other level of government, and how inter-governmental relation has improved political and economic development in Nigeria and it also terms to study the fiscal relationship the local government enjoys, conflict and recommendation on how to manage the conflicts among the levels of government for the development, politically and economically.
1.1 Background of the Study
The concept of Intergovernmental relations is associated with states having a Federal Administration system where the relationships between the Federal, Central or National Governmental and major sub-national unit (province, region or state) formally spect out in constitution. Intergovernmental relations have been seen as a system of transactions among structured levels of government in a state. It is also seen as registration in which the parties are negotiating advantageous positions for power, money and problems-solving responsibility (Olugbemi: 1980).
The goals of intergovernmental relations are said to be to promote peace and harmony among the three tiers of government, which are the Federal, State and Local Government. To accelerate the achievement of self-reliant economy. In so doing, inter-governmental relations will help to minimize inter-jurisdictional conflicts among the various levels of government. Also to boost greater natural economic integration through the activities of the three levels of government. Again to enhance the emergence of co-operative rather than competitive Federation there is also need to enhance effective and efficient utilization of available human and material resources among the three levels of government. To help solve the problem of rural and urban poverty. To achieve a situation where there is special need for integrating programmers on a nation wide scale. To look into the situation where states, local government or unit of the federal set up have responsibilities with no resources base to perform them (John Nwafor: Unpublished work).
The achievement of the objectives of inter-governmental relations is dependent on some social factors within the Nigerian social System. Some social factors include the political setting and the state of the economy in the nation. Looking at the political setting, the inter-governmental relations is basically based on the three tiers of government that is the Federal, State and Local Government. But come to look at that, the Federal and State Government is said to have more autonomy than the local government due to the fact that they are the last tier of government (John Nwafor: Unpublished work). That is why local government is not given its full autonomy to do things on its own. The other tiers of the government still tell them what to do, how to make their own policies, how to elect/appoint those to rule them like the Chancellor or Chairmen and so on. Local Government is still dependent on the other tiers of government making them too subordinate and loyal for my liking (Nwokedi, Ralph: 2002).
To this, there should be greater independence of the state and local governments in the Federal Government for their survival and performance of fundamental responsibilities. There should also be several reforms which should let to the recognition of the local government as the third tier of government with relative autonomy and jurisdictional powers as provided for in the constitutions.
Another problem is the state of the nation’s economy. The nation’s economy really influenced the nature and scope of intergovernmental relations in the local government in Nigeria. The wealth of any nation is a key factor in determining its pattern of material relation. Between 1960 and 1970, the basis of fiscal relations between the Federal, State and Local Government were richer and more powerful than the local government. But these problems will come to an end if the local government has greater control of the tax revenue. The local government should control 50% of the tax revenue allocation of its area without the Federal or State government interference. They should also receive grants and aids from outside and within the country, making them powerful and independent of their own. Their federation Allocation Account should be granted to them annually or monthly as the case may be. They should be allowed to run their affairs especially when it comes to monetary matters. (F Okoli and Onah O, 2002).
In so doing, channel of communication should be at its high level between the Federal, State and Local Government in order to produce an effective result. This is because without one another there would not be effectiveness due to the fact that an inter-governmental relation is relationship between the three tiers of government.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
To appreciate the depth of crisis in the Federal system in Nigeria, one has to follow the recent trend of the raging controversy between the Federal and State Governments over the exercise of power or control of revenue resources of local government on how not to have assumed the undue Prominence given to it as a constitutional question if Nigerian Leaders, particularly the Federal level had adhered strictly to the norms of federalism and followed the precedents established by the past democratic governments in Nigerian federation.
In Nigeria, the issue of sharing resources among the three levels of government has remained controversial due to lack of acceptable formula. It generates tension and bad blood among the three tiers of government. This has resulted in setting up of different committees or commissions to prescribe the formula to be used. Also there exists a conflict between the Federal, State and Local government over acceptable formula for sharing revenue. For instance, the conflict is usually whether the principle of derivation, need, natural interest or landmass should be used as a basis for the purpose. Even when these principles may be generally accepted as the main basis for working out revenue allocation formula, conflict might arise following as to which of the principles takes precedence over others as the main criteria for sharing the revenue.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this research work is to examine the Impact of Inter-governmental Relations on Nigeria Political and Economic Development.
The other objectives of the Study include:
- To determine the relevance of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria
- To determine the main sources of conflict among the various levels of government in inter-governmental relations in Nigeria.
- To recommend solutions to inter-jurisdictional conflict among the various levels of government.
- To recommend measures required for an improved inter-governmental relations in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. This is because it will be exposed to the challenges it is facing in inter-government relations.
It would also be of great significance to researchers by way of making them aware of problems that have been uncovered by these researchers, so that they would know where to start from in their subsequent research work in the area of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria.
It would also be useful to university/polytechnic students when doing a likely research. The study would be significant to policy makers and policy implementers, as they would make use of the findings and recommendations of this study.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
Research hypothesis is a tentative and predictive answer to a question which is subjected to the power of verification and its formulation can be expressed in:
- Null Hypothesis (Ho)
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
Since hypothesis is statistical method of testing the attributes of predictive condition, we can test the study under the following hypotheses:
- Ho = Inter-governmental Relations do not have impact on Nigeria Political and Economic Development H1 = Inter-governmental Relations have impact on Nigeria Political and Economic Development
- Ho = Inter-governmental Relations do not have relevance in Nigeria Political and Economic Development H1 = Inter-governmental Relations do have relevance in Nigeria Political and Economic Development
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is in “Assessment of the Impact of Intergovernmental Relations in Nigeria Political and Economic Development”. But due to the fact that there are many local governments in Nigeria, the researcher decided to center the research in Kaduna South Local Government using it as the case study.
The researcher met with some problem in undertaking this study, notably in some areas of data collecting. The problems are as follows:
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
Choosing the right local Government for case study, it was not easy to get the right local government that could give out accurate and detailed information needed by the researcher.
Resources was another constraint as the researcher was unable to execute the work more effectively due to insufficient financial resources because of this, the researcher has to make use of the little information she could get.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms/Concepts
In the course of this research work, some concepts were used and for easy and comprehensive understanding of the entire work, these concepts have been explained.
It is a political authority, purposely created by the state government under a law by which local communities within a definite area are organized to manage their own affairs within the limit of the law under which the authority is created. (Ogunna, 1998).
This is the government of a nation-state or federal government characterized by a unitary state having distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states. (Wikipedia).
This is the agency of the ruling class which is charged with the responsibility of exercising the state powers on behalf of the people. (Ugwu, 2009)
It is the qualitative and qualities, self-improvement of man that applies to whole societies and people. It means the removal of obstacles to the progressive or qualitative transformation of man and such obstacles include hunger, poverty, ignorance, disease, mal-nutrition, unemployment, to mention but a few. (Wikipedia)
Administration is determined action taken in pursuit of conscious purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of resources, aimed at making those things happen which we want to happen and simultaneously preventing developments that fail to square with our intentions. It is the marshalling of available labour and materials in order to gain that which is desired at the lowest cost in energy, time and money. (Nwafor, 1998).
The interactions that exist among various levels/tiers of government within a state and eventually the state in question have to be associated with a Federal system.(Adamolekun, 1983)
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