Nov 3, 2019 No Comments ›› Sunday




1.1 Background to the study

Staff training and development are important aspects of human resources management in organizations today and always. One important reason being that new technologies and new working procedures emerge every day and this calls for additional knowledge and improved skills for both the management and the workers. In a period of recession and rapid change in technology, it is even more important for an organization to create a flexible and adaptable workforce that is capable of using new technology and methods.

Employees constitute the most important resources of any organization, therefore the success or failure of any organization depends solely on the effective performance of the employees. But then how do we make them perform effectively. What ideas or programmes does the organization put in place in order to achieve the goal of optimal performance from its employees?

For any organization to succeed, it has to, among other things, train and develop its employees effectively, so as to meet up with the challenges of stiff competition and sophisticated technology. It is in view of this that effective training and development of employees has become a priority among organizations. Those organizations that pay lip service to this important function have been known to fall by the way side.

The act of training and development can take many forms but the following measures are usually regarded as the ideal way it could be carried out in order to make employees meet up the desired goals.

  • Giving intensive induction training to the new employees.
  • Sending employees on outside training so as to enable them to cope with some newly developed technology and methods.
  • Giving adequate on- the-job training to needy employees.
  • Retraining when an employee is transferred or promoted in order to assimilate with the new environment.

Moreover, a fundamental purpose for training and development is to provide organizational manpower need both in future and for the present. In this regard, the manpower policy will be valuable in identifying the training needs of the employees and also the necessary skills required for particular jobs in order to safe guard continuity, improve performance and allow for future expansion. To that extent, training and development is voluntary activity embarked upon by the organization, regardless of the expense but with the hope of reaping benefits in future. To quote from the manpower commission (1980) publication  “the  aim  of  training  is to  help  to  avoid  persistent  and economically damaging shortages of skills including shortages which will inhabit technological development”.

The further interesting aim of training is to equip individuals with the necessary  skills  to  enable  them  to  fit  in  the  organization,  gain promotion and have a responsible expectation of continuous employment  in  the  organization  or  elsewhere.  It  also  purports  to provide  those  who  are  capable  with  the breadth  of  knowledge  not simply to help them perform the job but to develop, improve innovate and pioneer technically or otherwise creative change.

However, very few organizations in the country really take training and development seriously. A research like this one is therefore necessary as it can reveal areas of deficiency and suggest ways for improvement.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Every business concern strives to make profit  within  the  targeted period. The realization of this objective involves the preplanning and coordinating of all aspects of the venture both human and materials. As the venture takes off, the basics that are required to keep it going includes decisions  and  certain  actions. Presently  one  of  the  most serious problems confronting organizations is refusal of most of them to take the right decision to expend money for training and developing their employees. This singular decision followed by the act of implementing, could solve the problem of employee non-performance. This in return would lead to growth and profitability, which is the yardstick of success in the business world. It would also ensure the continued existence of the organization.

For long, training and development have been said to be the bedrock of enhanced productivity and effectiveness. However the inertia of organizations in decision  making,  lack  of continuity of policies on training and development, lack of manpower planning, lack of managerial focus on employee training among others have created low performance and effectiveness in organizations. It is therefore; in the light of this, the study focused its attention on how training and development helps organization to improve its performance and effectiveness taking Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation NNPC as a case study specifically the following questions are raised with a view to providing answers.

  1. Could training play a significant role in improving employee’s performance and effectiveness?
  2. Which techniques of training and development when employed results in making the employees better?
  3. Could training and development provide the organization help in the growth and development of the organization?
  4. Could training assist   in   establishing   industrial   peace   and harmony?
  5. Where does organization turn to for training programmes of its


These and  many other questions will be examined  with a  view to providing answers in curse of the research study

1.3      Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact (effect) of training of employee job

Performance in NNPC. Specifically objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the training policies implemented in NNPC.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of the policies in achieving its stated goals.
  3. To examine  if  there  is  a  relationship  between  training  and  employee performance in NNPC.
  4. To determine if training have significant impact on employee performance in NNPC.
  5. To examine the problems and solutions associated with the training policies implemented by NNPC.

1.4    Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

H0 Training and development play significant role in improving employee performance in  NNPC.

Hi  Training and development do not play any significant role in improving employee performance in  NNPC.

Hypothesis 2

H0 Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation employs Training and development techniques on their employees, which results in making them better towards industrial peace and harmony.

Hi Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation does not employ training and development techniques on their employees.

1.5 Significance of the study

Since the reasons for which idea of training and development was basically conceived is to not only performance and effectiveness and efficiency of employees in organization, but as well to improve the productivity and profitability to the owners and the general well being of the organization, the critical survey on the training and development particularly the techniques employed will seem quite significant to all stakeholders. Also the research will bring to light the important rolesthat training and development play if properly exploited in both public and private organization.

Moreover, the study may draw the attention of the organizations that do not train and develop their employees to do so for the sake of high productivity and industrial harmony. In addition, the study will serve, as input to organizations especially if they read and exploit the numerous ways of training and developing employees as will be discussed in the subsequent chapters.

The study will thus be of significance not only to organizations but also students.

1.6 Scope and limitation of the study

This research study is on training and development as tools for improving employee performance. The research study is a case study of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation NNPC, which has its employees spread over 36 states of the federation. The organization is made up of 42 offices comprising 8 Zonal offices and 34 state offices. The corporate Head office is located at Abuja the Federal Capital.

A research of this kind cannot be conducted without one or series of limitations, such as time constraints, financial constraints access to data and so on. In this research study the major constraints encountered were those of financial constraints, time and access to data, due to the large  number  of  offices  spread  all  over  the  nation,  for  that  the researcher used only the information that were gathered from the questionnaires given to employees and a personal interview with the 3top management staff, Head admin. And Head training. Also the problem of logistics was impediment to a nationwide survey.

1.7 Research Methodology

Primary and secondary sources of data were used in the conduct of the study. The questionnaire and personal interview were used in the primary sourcing of data, in which one thousand two hundred and forty (1,240) questionnaires were offered to respondents; while 2 (two) were interviewed  orally.  Secondary sources  comprise  of  books,  journals, organization’s documents and other relevant literature on the subject. All were used as the secondary sources of data.

However, the populations of the study are the employees of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation spread over the 36 states of the federation. A random sampling and judgmental sampling method were employed in order to attain the sample size. The sample size is 87% (eighty seven percent) of the total population. Tables and percentages were used as the instrument of data analysis.

1.7.1 Population and Sample Size of the study

According to Gummesson (2000), population is sometimes referred to as the universe, and it is defined as the entire group whose characteristics are to be estimated. While, he defined sample as a limited number of elements selected from the population which is representative of that population.

For the purpose of this study, the population constitutes the totality of the staff (which involve both senior level staff, middle level staff and lower level staff) the various departments within the organisation under the five directorate of the organisation’s

Headquarter Abuja. The directorates includes governor’s directorate, operations directorate, corporate service directorate, financial system stability directorate and economic policy directorate. The departments which includes: under governors directorate – corporate secretariat department, governors department, strategy and performance   improvement   department,   internal   audit   department,   and   risk management department; under operations directorate – banking and payment system department, branch operations department, currency operations department, information technology department and reserve management department. Under corporate service directorate – human resource department, legal services department, procurement and support service department, finance department, medical service department, security service department and corporate communication department. Under  financial  system  stability  directorate  –  banking  supervision  department,

development finance department, financial policy and regulation department and other financial institution supervision department. For economic policy directorate – financial market department, monetary policy department, research department, statistics department and trade and exchange department.

The population of the study for the two branches of NNPC – Kaduna and Porthacourt Branch is 154 staffs (i.e. 73 in Porthacourt Branch and 81 in Kaduna Branch). The sample size of the study will be arrived at by using the Yamane’s method of determining sample size because of the nature of the study.

1.7.2 Sampling Technique

The total of 120 questionnaires will be distributed to the two branches which each branch  will  be  given  some  number  of  questionnaire  bases  on  proportion  of  its population for the study. Therefore the questionnaire distribution for Kano branch will be 63 questionnaires while the questionnaire distribution for Jos branch will be 57 questionnaires.  The  research  will  adopted  simple  random  or  randomization  for fairness and research objectivity. This will give room for every respondent to have equal chance of being a participant (representation of the population size).

1.7.3 Sources of Data Collection

In the collection of data for the purpose of this research work, both primary and secondary sources of data collection were used. Prominent among the primary sources used is the use of questionnaires to obtain relevant information. For the secondary sources of data collection journal reviews, textbooks, Bulletins, Reports and other publication on relevant topic are used.

Using the questionnaire, some structured questions; open and closed ended questions were made, in order to aid the researcher to obtain relevant information and to reach the selected sample size who could provide the relevant information for the research. To achieve this objective, two different questionnaires were drawn and given to both the management and the non management staff; each questionnaire contains set of questions relevant to the different category of staff.

1.7.4 Method of Data Analysis

For the purpose of this research, data collected was analyzed based on the answers and opinions of the respondent derived from the questionnaire issued to both management staff and non management staff. The answers are tabulated and interpreted using the percentage method. Data collected from the questionnaire was also used to prove the hypothesis raised, and to establish a result of findings. So the chi-square method of analysis will be used to test the hypothesis for this research work.

Also  statistical  tools  such  as  table,  chart,  and  percentages  were  used  in  the presentation  and  analysis  of  data  chi-square  (X2)  was  sued  to  test  the  stated hypothesis.

1.8 Definition Terms

The following terms hereby defined for the sake of clarity.

Training:  – It is an organizational effort to change the behaviour or attitudes of employees so that they can perform to acceptable standard on the job. It is thus an experience, discipline or a systematic action, which   cause   people   to   acquire   new   skills,   knowledge   and predetermined behaviour.

Development: – it is a steady growth and progressive from one step to another towards individual or collective advancement. Also, it is the

process of increasing the knowledge, skill and capabilities of people for the purpose of increasing productivity in the organization.

Employee:  – Is a person employed for wages, salaries and so on in an organization been it public or private.

Performance:   – It is an accomplishment, execution or carrying out anything ordered to an organization, also, it is the level of profitability and or satisfaction given to customers.

Effectiveness: – According to chambers dictionary, it is having power or able to produce or producing a desired results.


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