Dec 15, 2023 No Comments ›› OpenBook



Waterborne diseases represent substantial global burden of disease and children under the age of five are more susceptible to these diseases compared to adults. The aim of this study was; to evaluate the effects of waterborne diseases among the residents of Maraban-Rido District in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, to know the sources of water supply and to know the level of awareness on the method of preventing water related diseases. Relevant literature’s were reviewed in line with the objectives of the study. The study adopted simple random sampling techniques and 384 questionnaires were administered to the populace, 350 copies of the questionnaires were retrieved and 34copies were misplaced and some were invalid.  Findings from the study were analyzed using chi-square and interpreted in tables and graphs. Findings from the study reveals that waterborne diseases were experienced by member of the households of the respondents, with incidences of typhoid fever being significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of cholera, schistosomiasis, or diarrhoea and vomiting.  Typhoid fever accounted for 60.6% of the incidences of waterborne diseases reported by the members of respondents’ households; cases of diarrhoea and vomiting were reported in 90 (25.7%) of the households, cholera in 34 (9.71%), while 14 (4.0%) households recorded incidences of schistosomiasis. The study concludes that Most waterborne  diseases  are  often  transmitted  via the fecal-oral route, and this occurs when human faecal  material  is  ingested  through  drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food which  mainly  arises  from  poor  sewage management  and  improper  sanitation also transmission of pathogenic microbes could occurs while using infected water for drinking, food preparation and washing among others this lead to high burden of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases due to unsafe water. Inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices among human population remain a major global public health issues. It was however recommended that, health education on threat from contaminated drinking water, the use of filters can provide an effective means for the users to protect themselves. Although people know water can be contaminated and can have effects on their health, their knowledge on how some of their actions could contribute to the faecal contamination of drinking water at the point-of-use is limited. Also, the public should be educated on efficient water use practices and the intensification of awareness as to how to handle and locally treat water using additional chemical disinfectant for domestic use.



1.1 Background of the Study

Water is a substance that exists in gaseous, liquid and solid phases and is made up of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen. At normal temperature, water is an odourless and flavourless liquid, carries oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body. Since it can dissolve more chemicals than any other liquid, water is sometimes referred to as the “universal solvent” and is hence more susceptible to pollution. Waterborne diseases could be contracted when contaminated drinking water or food is consumed, it could be from infected person to person especially where hygiene is poor, common sources of infection are raw fruit or vegetables that have been irrigated with contaminated water. Waterborne disease reporting began in the United States in 1854 they are caused by pathogenic microbes spread via contaminated water (Tulchinsky, 2018).

Transmission of these pathogens could occurs while using infected water for drinking, food preparation and washing among others this lead to high burden of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices among human population remain a major global public health issues. John Snow was the pioneer that investigated on cholera epidemics in England and Particularly in London in 1854 in which he demonstrated that contaminated water was the key source of the epidemics. Also the first reported outbreak of chronic diarrhea associated with drinking untreated well water occurred in 1987 (William et al., 1990). State health departments and the Health Effects Research Laboratory of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contacts all state water-supply agencies annually to report water-related disease outbreaks to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on a standard reporting form. 

It is widely acknowledged that faecal contamination of water is one of the main causes of waterborne diseases, such as diarrhea diseases, which are brought on by ingesting water contaminated with faecal pathogens found in human or animal excreta. In nation at all economic development levels, the potential for drinking water to spread microbial infections to large populations and cause subsequent sickness is widely known (Nwabor, 2016). Thus, the prevention and control of many illnesses depend on good personal hygiene and sanitary settings. Eggs from excrement can be transferred to food and water by flies and other arthropods. Aquatic veggies (encysted larvae) or contact with contaminated water are two ways that vegetables might become contaminated. More than 40% of the world’s population is currently affected by water scarcity, which is a global problem (Guppy, et al., 2017).

According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal illness causes the lives of 1.8 million people each year and represents an estimated 4.1% of the daily global disease burden. According to further estimates, 88% of this burden falls primarily on children in developing nations and is related to inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WHO/UNICEF, 2000). Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally, and lack of water treatment plants are the major problem in most developing countries.

In some places, the availability of water is so scarce that people have neither the time nor the money to afford the water purifiers or other water treatment mechanisms. Water pollution travels slower than air pollution but still may affect large areas (Lindsay et al., 2017). Water pollution can be categories into two, chemicals and pathogens (Ameer, 2017). Many waterborne pathogens can also be acquired by consuming contaminated food or beverages, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread (Adeyinka, et al., 2014). Most waterborne diseases are often transmitted via the faecal-oral route, and this occurs when human faecal material is ingested through drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food which mainly arises from poor sewage management and improper sanitation.

Most of these diseases cause by several pathogenic microorganisms which were previously unknown have become the focus of major research (Patel, et al., 2019). Faecal pollution of drinking-water may be sporadic and the degree of faecal contamination may be low or fluctuate widely. In  communities  where contamination  levels are low, supplies may not carry life-threatening risks  and  the  population may  have  used  the  same  source  for time immemorial. However, where contamination levels are high, consumers (especially the visitors, the very young, the old and those suffering from immunodeficiency-related diseases) may be at a significant risk of infection. In rural African regions, faecal contamination of water  arises from  runoffs  from  nearby bushes and forest which  serve  as  defecation  sites  for rural  dwellers.

Waterborne disease can be caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria, and intestinal parasites. Some of the organisms remarkable for their role in the outbreak of waterborne disease include Cholera, Amoebic dysentery, Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), Cryptosporidiosis, Typhoid, Giardiasis, Paratyphoid, Balantidiasis,  Salmonellosis, Campylobacter enteritis, Rotavirus diarrhoea, E.coli diarrhea, Hepatitis  A, Leptospirosis and Poliomyelitis. Pathogens include a variety of living organisms usually from animal waste such as various species of viruses, bacteria, fungi and intestinal worms. Their presence in water, many times, remains unnoticed. (Fazal ur, 2018).

The majority of the burden of aquatic infections is caused by bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter, Shigella, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Hepatitis A, amoebiasis, calciviruses, leptospirosis, polio, and other enteroviruses, as well as schistosomiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis are some other significant impact human diseases. These illnesses have in common the use of water as a means of spreading pathogens from existing human hosts to new ones acquired from animals, the environment, or other humans. They can then spread the infection to others after becoming infected in the contaminated water. A water-related disease can also spread through the water, like schistosomiasis, where the parasite must first multiply in water-associated snails before it can infect humans (Griffiths, 2017).

It is also known that those with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to contracting waterborne infections (Nwabor et al., 2016). Given the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the nation, this has a detrimental effect on the population’s overall immunity. In Africa, illnesses connected to water or sanitation were reported to affect about half of all patients in hospitals (United Nations, 2014), cleaning the environment properly and frequently will keep mosquitoes away. Other methods of preventing dengue fever include using insect repellents and sleeping under treated mosquito nets. Therefore research on water pollution has been a focus for government and scientists to protect river water quality avoid pollution and prevent global water scarcity. According to reports, the bacterial disease cholera, which causes vomiting, watery stools, dehydration, tiredness, and kidney failure, has been a major burden in Nigeria (Ocheri et al., 2012).

Most of these water-borne illnesses are curable with the right drugs and treatment regimens (Fazal ur, 2018). Public health concerns have been raised as a result of the drinking water issues in some areas of Nigeria. Communities who do not take the provision of safe drinking water seriously risk an outbreak of waterborne infections. Diarrhea, ulcers, hepatitis, arsenicosis, respiratory tract infections, kidney damage, and endocrine disorders are further water-borne illnesses that lead to loss of individual lives. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2017 aimed to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030 (United Nations, 2015). This will require a dramatic acceleration in the current rates of progress, according to UNICEF/WHO.

Due to overuse of fertilizers and unhygienic conditions, agricultural development operations posed a serious hazard to human health. Water quality has decreased due to anthropogenic activities such as significant urbanization, agricultural practices, industrialization, and population growth in many parts of the world (Baig et al., 2009). Additionally, inadequate water supplies have made it harder to reduce water contamination and enhance water quality (Bu et al., 2010). Hence this study which is intended to know the effects of water borne diseases and also suggest possible ways of getting potable and wholesome water distribution for human use and consumption in the community under study, in other to minimize the health burden of water-borne disease acquired through poor drinking water.

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

Globally water borne diseases constitute the second leading cause of intestinal infection, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, typhoid, and malaria. This could lead to morbidity and mortality of millions of people especially children below the age of five years. The enormity of human mortality all over the world is due contaminated water related ailment.

1.3     Aim and Objectives

1.3.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of this research work is to assess the effects of waterborne diseases among the residents of Maraban Rido district in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.3.2 Objectives of the study

The objectives of this research work include the following:

  1. To know the effects of water borne diseases in Maraban Rido community of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
  2. To know the sources of water supply and its sufficiency in the community.
  3. To view the public health effects of sanitation in the community and compare the findings with those obtainable in the other parts of the world.

1.4     Research Questions

The research project will attempt to provide scientific and evidenced based answers to the following questions and many more

  1. What are the effects of water borne diseases in Maraban rido community of Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna State and its implication on the health of the population?
  2. What are the sources of water supply and its sufficiency in the community?
  3. What are the public health effects of sanitation in the community and how does it compare with the findings of those obtained in the other parts of the world?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

This research project assesses the impact and implication of water born disease in the area, its effect on the livelihood of the affected persons, the burden on the healthcare system and members of the affected families. The project also proffers possible solutions to the challenges of water born disease in Maraban Rido, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The study raises people awareness of water borne diseases and its public health effect, providing useful information about water borne diseases and recommend solution to the problems which is a key intervention for improving health planning, teaching and prevention of fetal child health and morbidity in adults not only in Kaduna State but in Nigeria and globally. Remarkably the study does not only examine the impact of waterborne diseases in Maraban Rido but also recommend solutions to the problems, validate the occurrence of waterborne diseases, seek government relief to produce safe, adequate and continuous water supply, while also soliciting for the improvement of healthcare planning and teaching in the environment with improving surveillance to understand the changing epidemiology of the diseases cause by contaminated or unsafe water supply.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The scope of this study centred on the residents of Maraban Rido community in Chikun Local Government Area as a study environment. The study considered the knowledge of waterborne diseases among the residents, their sources of water supply, identify the commonest waterborne disease prevalent, view the public health sanitation to identify the prevalent, know their level of awareness on the water related diseases compare the findings with those around the world and proffer recommendation regard the finding.

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