EFFECT OF KIDNAPPING AND BANDITRY ON EDUCATION

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Nov 16, 2023 No Comments ›› OpenBook

EFFECT OF KIDNAPPING AND BANDITRY ON EDUCATION IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study examines the “Effect of Banditry and Kidnapping on Education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State”. Four objectives guided the study: to examine the nature of kidnapping and banditry; to Identify the causes of kidnapping and banditry; to find out the impact of kidnapping and banditry on education and to analyse the current security measures in the protection of lives and properties in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. A survey method was used along with a four point likert scale questionnaire to facilitate the collection of data from respondents. A sample of 100 were involved and served as respondents. Data collected was presented using statistical tables with percentage values for the Bio-data and mean value to analyze the research questions formulated from the objectives. Findings shows that in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Inter-communal political violence, inter-personal violence, gang violence, and economical-motivated violence are the nature of kidnapping and banditry; that Political-based violence, weak security system, unemployment/poverty, and organized violent group are the causes of kidnapping and banditry; that Effective education cannot be achieved in a situation where there is insecurity; that insecurity can force students or learners out of school; lecturers or teachers will prefer to transfer their services to other schools where their safety will be secured and guaranteed and that learning materials are always destroyed during crises and the donors will be reluctant to provide further support to conflict areas are the negative impacts of kidnapping and banditry on education;  and that Equipment of security agencies, creating employment, maintain law and order, and establishment of community policing are the current security measures in the protection of life and properties. It was recommended that Government should strengthen the security personnel by equipping them with sophisticated weapons, communication gadget and logistics to enable them confront the bandits head-on.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Education is the light every individual needed to move to the next stage in the journey of life. Education helps to give direction, create opportunity and place you in good position in life. The only different between the bank gate man and the bank managing director is education. We all want to be in good position in life and one of the vital requirements is education. The foundation of education of students has a long way and role to play in different students’ performance in school.

However, with the increasing nature of terrorism, armed robbery, banditry, kidnapping, in Nigeria which constitute a devastating threat to security of life of students makes it challenging in achieving the purpose of literacy education for young ones.

According to section 14 (2) (b) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s constitution, the welfare and security of the populace must be the state’s primary goals. The security and well-being of the people are jointly stated as the only goals in this declaration (Okeke, 2022). Every requirement is present when one desires to grasp security. All people, both governmental and non-governmental, are excessively concerned about security (Akpan, 2017). The need for security becomes a vital issue of political thought and action in a world of perceived improbability and danger. It channels a broad yearning for more dependability, stability, and tangibleness in the face of the terrifying forces of unpredictability, rapid transformation, and complexity. Ironically, however, there is no consensus on what the phrase “security” means, and it does not lend itself to any prognosis. Instead, it delineates the boundaries of a hotly contested terrain (Boemcken and Schetter, 2016). “Security is regarded as a state in which citizens are free from any dangers to their lives and means of subsistence, free from bodily damage, diseases, unemployment, and human rights violations wherever they may be found inside a sovereign nation” (Ndubuisi-Okolo Anigbuogu, 2019). In order to foster sustainable human development and to advance regional, national, and international peace and stability, security might be viewed as a “public good” (Hussein, Gnisci and Wanjiru, 2017).

According to the United Nations Development Programme (2015), security is defined as protection from covert and harmful interruptions of daily operations at homes, workplaces, communities, etc. The realism school views security in terms of warfare, recommending various military measures to counteract security concerns (Akpan, 2017). According to the “human security” perspective, threats and challenges to security go beyond law and order and national defence to include all political, economic, and social concerns that provide a life free from danger. The state has lost importance in favour of individual security. However, these two things are not incompatible (Hussein, Gnisci and Wanjiru, 2017). The military’s emphasis on security changed after the Cold War from several angles. There have been many viewpoints on security, especially at the personal level (Olurode, 2016; Bawa, 2016).

The human security approach has also made it clear that any effort to address security-related issues must be based on consultation and collaboration with various sets of actors, many of whom frequently have conflicting interests, such as civilians and soldiers, government officials and non-governmental organisations, local, national, and international actors. Despite this consensus, it has been challenging for international actors to agree on a single authoritative definition of security that enables the international community to effectively address a variety of challenges and threats, such as violent conflict, crime, emancipation, economic hardship, and environmental degradation (Hussein, Gnisci and Wanjiru, 2017).

According to Oyeyemi (2019). Nigeria’s insecurity problem may resemble that of the early 1980s economic crisis brought on by the decline in commodity prices. Price hikes from OPEC, privatisation, economic emancipation, deregulation, currency depreciation, the Cold War, politics, and the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP). The rise of Boko-Haram in the states of Borno and Yobe. The gang then became a menace to Nigeria and other nearby countries because of its criminality and terrorist actions; the height of this is insurgency, banditry, and kidnapping.

Hence, banditry and kidnapping is a threat to the educational, economic, political and social security of Nigeria. It is against the background that the study seeks to examine effect of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Insecurity is present in our species from ancient past; there is evidence in order to satisfy such a single need as hunger. In Nigeria for example, banditry and kidnapping has spread all over the country’s six geo -political zones. According to research conducted by Iyorwuese (2016), Obi, etal (2018) and Usman, etal (2020) banditry, kidnapping and farmers’-herdsmen conflict have continued to affect socio-economic activities and food security necessary for sustainability and national integration and the high propensity of damages is alarming in states like Kaduna, Plateau, Kogi, Niger, Nasarawa, Benue and Abuja, Federal Capital Territory.

The multiplier implication of banditry and kidnapping is that, it has resulted in the retarded growth and development of education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Banditry and kidnapping is an ill wind which blows no one any good. Nigerian society has now been characterized and manifested in kidnapping that has become wide spread, promoting a climate of fear, impunity and insecurity in the country. Furthermore, the political unrest has worsened the internal security situation in Nigeria and also imbibed the spirit of fear in the heart of Nigerians as it has witnessed incessant cases of farmers-herdsmen attack in many states across the country. These attacks are increasingly becoming wide spread and promoting a climate of fear, impunity and insecurity in the country thus affecting education, food security and socio-economic development.

Peace makes all things possible and without it life will be meaningless. Institutions of higher learning in Nigeria and globally have been faced with many challenges in the course of their duties. The most serious challenge facing them is insecurity which seems not to be ending in the near future in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State due to the emergence of banditry and kidnapping of students for ransom. Lack of peace brings general destruction, profound insecurity, intimidation and fear which can lead to closure of schools thereby stopping educational activities for as long as a complete session. Nigerian Institutions that have faced insecurity have experienced many setbacks in terms of academic growth and infrastructural destruction.

The four major forms of insecurity in Nigeria are cultism, political thuggery, herders and farmers conflict and kidnapping and Banditry. Nevertheless, kidnapping and Banditry as it affects Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State is the main focus of this research and its impacts on education in the area. Initially, those who kidnap people in Nigeria for the sake of obtaining ransom targeted the elite class and their relatives that are dear to them, e.g. the kidnapping of the mother of the former Nigerian Football Federation President, Alhaji Sani Lulu, Hajiya Laraba Abdullahi, who was kidnapped from her palatial home in Idah, Kogi State, at 6:45pm in July, 2019 and taken to an unknown destination. However, the practice of kidnapping has taken another dimension because kidnappers do not only target high profile people but middle class, civil servants, and travelers from other states among others. A case in point; according to Kaduna State Police Command, Gunmen in Nigeria have kidnapped at least 140 school children in the north- west of the country, between July to December, 2021. Eight people were also abducted from the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Centre in Zaria. Earlier, two nurses and a 12-month-old child were among those seized. There has been a recent spate of abductions from schools and universities for ransom, (Usman, Obi and Okeme, 2020)

Ibrahim, (2021), reports that there were mass kidnapping from a school near Kaduna city, about 80km (50 miles) south-west of Zaria. Furthermore, the kidnapping of the Kagara school students, a commercial bus, NSTA, belonging to Niger state government was attacked by bandits at Kundu where more than 20 passengers on board were abducted on their way back to Minna while returning from Rijau, in Rijau local government area of the state, (Ibrahim, 2021). In another development, the Chief of Staff to Governor Abubakar Sani Bello of Niger state, Mallam Ibrahim Balarabe on Sunday narrowly escaped being abducted by armed bandits while returning from his hometown in Kagara, Rafi local Government Area of the State. This upsurge is worrisome as so many victims have been forcefully picked and whisked away to unknown places only for ransom to be placed on them and hard-earned monies are extorted from their families. It is against this that the study seeks to examine the impact of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the nature of kidnapping and banditry in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State
  2. Identify the causes of kidnapping and banditry in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State
  3. Find out the impact of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State
  4. Analyse the current security measures in the protection of lives and properties in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.4     Research Questions

The following are the research questions formulated from the objectives of the study:

  1. What is the nature of kidnapping and banditry in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  2. What are the causes of kidnapping and banditry in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  3. What are the impacts of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  4. What is the current security measures in the protection of life and properties in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?

1.5     Significance of the Study

The presence of insecurity in any environment constitutes threat to lives and properties, hinders educational and business activities, and discourages local and foreign investors, all of which stifles and retards development of a country. So embarking on a study of this nature is to find out the impact of kidnapping and banditry on educational development, the perception of people on security/insecurity in their area, and the solution to the problem of insecurity affecting the society.

  1. This study is therefore significant in the sense that it provides information for academic purposes and also compliments other previous studies on the same subject and brings about the magnitude of influence; insecurity has on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Nigeria as a country.
  2. It will also help to improve the insecurity problem affecting development, and the study would provide them with information on ground which can help redevelop better security strategies and policies.
  3. This research work establishes the relationship between insecurity and development.
  4. In addition, the information that comes from this study, will provide useful information for policy formulators in Nigeria concerning the issue of insecurity,
  5. Although there has been many studies carried out on the nature of insecurity in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, however this study will point out some of the loop holes affecting the success of security.

1.6     Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is on the impact of kidnapping and banditry on education in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The findings of the study shall be based on the responses gotten from the residents and limited to the respondents in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.7     Definition of Terms

A brief explanatory remark on the key terms will be pertinent to aid a better understanding of the topic under study. The terms include the following: impact, insecurity, banditry, kidnapping and education.

Banditry: This term is applied to outlaws who alone or in groups commit armed crimes; closely related forms of deviance. The crimes of bandits, however, are restricted to robbery, kidnapping, taking of hostages, and racketeering. Primary characteristics of banditry are the use of force or violence and the profit motive. Secondarily, bandits tend to engage in a wide variety of undertakings rather than one type, to vary their methods of operation considerably, to conduct their activities over a wide geographical area, and to be professional criminals, although beginners may also be classified as bandits

Impact: effect or influence

Insecurity: is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.

Kidnapping: Kidnapping is the taking away of a person by force, threat or deceit, with intent to cause him to be detained against his will. It may be done for ransom or for political purposes (http://www. encyclopedia. com/topic/kidnapping. aspx). Also it can be seen as; The abduction of another person with an intent to hold him for ransom or reward; or use him as a shield or hostage; or accomplish or aid the commission of any felony or flight there from or inflict physical injury upon him, or to violate him sexually (http://definitions. uslegal. com/k/kidnapping/).

Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.

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