PATRIARCHAL CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION
The study examined Patriarchal Culture and Its Impact on Girl-Child Education in Nasarawa Eggon Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Objectively, four research questions were formulated. The survey design was used in the study. The sample size was 100. 100 questionaires were administered to the respondents, but 94 questionaires were found valid. The data gathered were analysed using simple percentage and mean. The findings revealed that: Economic development, education for the next generation, better reproductive health, low rates of child mortality and malnutrition and improved family life are the benefits of girl-child education; Low parental influence, marriage material, family influence, poverty and cultural practices are the factors that prevent girl-child education; Social isolation, poor health, low self-esteem, early marriage, and harmful psychosocial impact are the consequences or effects of patriarchal culture on girl-child education; and Training of more female teachers, nurses, and doctors in receiving government attention through scholarship award and remedial courses; a proposal for female Arabic centre in the State which will integrate Islamic education with the western type; an edict preventing the withdrawal of girl-child from school should be in place; a system of offering assistance to the less privileged female children in form of provision of uniforms, books, essential material, etc; and performing female children should be identified, recognized and rewarded in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendations given that Gender balanced curriculum and education policies should be established to consider the interest of the girl-child so that she is motivated to learn and also teacher‘s welfare should be considered.
1.1 Background of the Study
In Nigeria women are considered as men’s properties or pleasure object. They are also considered as a [machine] means for producing children. These situations have resulted in unfair treatment of women especially with regards to education of the female child in the traditional Nigeria society. There exists the belief that women are second class citizen Ejere  further asserts that gender inequality in Nigeria is promoted by religious and communal customs. Young girls particularly in northern Nigeria are denied the benefit of education. This has severe consequences for society at large. Obinaju  sees education as inalienable right of all irrespective of the person’s circumstances.
Education in its general sense is a form of learning which the knowledge, skills, values benefits and habits a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training or research. Education has been described as the most important aspect of human development, a key to successful living, especially girl-child education [micheal,2011].
Girl-child education, is a catch all terms for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding [primary education, secondary, tertiary and education in in particular] for education implies making her a day’s functional member of the society. Statistics show that many girls are not enrolled in school. The global figure for out of school children is estimated 121 million, 65 million are girls with over 80 percent of these girls in sub-Sahara Africa including Nigeria [UNICEF,2007]. The concern of this paper is that despise the campaign by the federal government united children education fund [UNICEF] and stake holders in education to improve girls-child education is skill high. Therefore, in the light of the above the study seeks to investigate “Patriarchal Culture and Its Impact on Girl-Child Education in Nasarawa Eggon Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.”
1.2 Statement of the problem
Most Africa countries are patriarchal in structure that is based on inequality and injustice. Patriarchal attitudes lead to gender stereotyping. It pervades all areas of life in Nigeria, it is a well-known fact that many parent in Africa given preferential treatment on the boy-child, especially in matters concerning education. Women are given fewer education opportunities than men as reflected in the lower literacy rates for adult female population compared to men. The social norm, which supported these gender relations were culturally transmitted from one generation to another through the process of socialization. As female children move through childhood into adolescence, they are exposed to many factors, which influence their attitudes and behaviors regarding gender roles, these attitudes are generally learning first in the home and are then reinforced by the child’s peers influence, quest for money and material things, unfriendly situation of school, social media influence, violence against girl-child, low level understanding of sex education, and preference for male child education. However, the strongest influence on gender role development seems to occur within the family setting, with parent passing on, both overtly and covertly, to their children their own beliefs about gender. In view of the aforementioned problems, the study seeks to investigate “Patriarchal Culture and Its Impact on Girl-Child Education in Nasarawa Eggon Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.”
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to critically examine patriarchal culture and its impact on girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A. Other specific objectives are to:
- Examine the benefits of girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A.
- Examine factors that prevent girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A.
- Assess the consequences or effects of patriarchal culture on girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A.
- Suggest strategies in enhancing girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were set to guide the study;
- What are the benefits of girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A?
- What are the factors that prevent girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A?
- What are the consequences or effects of patriarchal culture on girl-child education in Nasarawa Eggon L.G.A?
- What are the strategies for enhancing girl-child education?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to be significant to several stakeholders, such as parents, teachers, students/researchers, and the government.
To the Parents:
The findings of this research could enable parents to be more enlightened on their responsibilities towards girl-child education.
The findings would also enable parents to have a rethink of their negative thought about girl-child education for positive.
To the Teachers:
The findings of this study may enable them to appreciate their roles as teachers in causing female students be retained in schools to finish their studies.
To the Students/Researchers:
They may use the findings of this study as appoint of reference (by referring to them) in their studies, as well as finding the gaps in the current study to fill them in their future studies.
To the Government:
The findings of this study will enable them put in more effort to ensure that the policy on girl child education are implemented by the parents and the schools.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
This research was carried out in Nasarawa Eggon Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The study centred on the parents, teachers, government, societies and girl child. Research has to observe the overall mention area in order to establish patriarchal culture and its impact on girl-child education. Conversely, due to time and financial constrains the study is limited to Nasarawa Eggon Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Culture: this refers to the ideas, customs and social behavior of a particular people or society.
Education: is the process of facilitating learning, knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habit of a group of people.
Gender: refers to the socially constructed roles of women and men, which “sex” refers to biological and physical characteristic which define humans as female or male.
Girl-child: is a female human from birth through childhood and adolescence to attainment of education when she becomes a woman.
Patriarchal: is a social system in which males hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property etc.
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