THE IMPACT OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This study examined “Assessment of the Impact of Rural – Urban Migration on the socio – economic development of Nigeria”. Purposefully, the study assessed the reasons for rural – urban migration in the Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State; the problem caused by the impact of rural – urban migration. The researcher used survey research designs to carry out the study. The sample size of the population was 388. So 388 questionnaires were administered to 388 respondents from Kaduna North Local Government Area. But, three hundred and four (304) usable questionnaires provided the database (given an 78.35% response rate) in this study The data obtained was analysed using statistical tables of mean/percentage. Based on the findings from the analysis of the data, conclusion was drawn and recommendations given, such as: jobs opportunities should be created in order to accommodate the incoming immigrant in the local government area; the government should create in avenue whereby those immigrant would be scrutinized to determine whether they are fit to reside in the local government area; policy formation must go in line with the available resources in the local government … .
1.1 Background of the Study
Assessment of the impact of rural – urban migration have continue to generate great debates since the last three decades or so, those moving from rural – urban areas constitute certain classes, categories and strata of the society that are basically plagued with certain social and economic problems in which poverty ranks highest and most fundamental on rural – urban gap have since 1960’s, been one of the focus areas that continued to produce insight on the precarious conditions of the people in both the rural and the unban area with attended consequences in many forms and dimension. Thus rural – urban inequality, resulting in the phenomenal rural – urban migration, has become the prevailing orthodoxy in the conceptualizing the problems and trend of developmental strategies and policies in Nigeria.
This study will show that rural – urban migration is a double edged problem effecting the rural community as well as the destination urban areas. The rural community is been affected in such a way that youth and adult that are suppose to remain in the community and contribute their own quota to the development of agriculture and there community are no longer available in the rural areas. They move to urban centres in search of more available greener pasture and abandon the farming activities which they believe cannot earn them what they would get in Urban centres. Subsequently, this lends to reduce agricultural production had food availability in the country.
However, with the eclipse of the past independence euphoria Nigeria, the population of Nigeria is unevenly distributed. About 60% of the population lives in the rural, but the urban areas are developing more rapidly. The urban areas have grown a by about 3.7% per annum in the last decades. The population that is urban is currently estimated to be 39% and some projection shows the population rising up 42% in 2010 and 46% in 2012. The overall density of population in 1991 was 96 persons per square kilometer. The estimation marks huge regional variation density range from 27 person per square kilometer in Kaduna State to 1,712 per square kilometer. Thus internal migration takes the form of rural – urban and rural – urban, urban to rural and urban to urban movement. However rural – urban migration is the most significant of the migration of the movement. The young and able bodied usually dominate this movement from rural – urban areas in search of employment, social amenities and site related opportunities. The resulting rapid growth of the cities has created serious social problem of housing, food shortage, crime and sanitation, unemployment, underemployment etc while data on internal migration is sparse.
Adepoju (2004) asserted that migration is a selective process affecting individual or families with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. Migration occurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural, environmental and political factors and has its effect on both the area of origin (rural) as well as the destination (urban).
Harris and Thodaro (2006), revealed that people tend to move away from a place or location due to the need to escape violence, political instability, drought, congestion in various dimensions, adverse or real persecution. He further stated that adverse physical conditions such as flood, landslide (erosion and earthquake), insect and pest, soil infertility, unemployment, all these contribute immensely to the reason why people leave one environment for another. In the same vein, reported that migration of people from rural to urban areas resulted as a result of decreasing contribution of agricultural production to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This had led to rural – urban migration of young able bodied men and women to the cities where they engaged in off and nonfarm activities. There is more emphasis on and implementation of an educational system that does not take agriculture as the alternative career vocation. Other vocations that naturally depend on agriculture for survival now suffer lack of raw materials as a result of rural-urban migration. Aged – men and women are left on the farm with crude implements and farm tools to till the land and tend the animals. Also, total lack of interest of young people in agriculture because of drudgery involved and security of essential farm inputs coupled with lack of social infrastructures have led to rural-urban migration. Harris and Thodaro (2006), concluded that the results of this entire negative attitude include; soaring unemployment among youths, increasing rate of social menaces, poverty in the land, food insecurity and environmental degradation.
1.1.1 Historical Background of Kaduna North Local Government Area
The city of Kaduna developed in the first instance in the dual capacity of the centre of colonialism it was established in 1913 on a virgin land, which had adequate water supply. Its centrality in north Nigeria and accessibility from the coast made its attractive to the colonial government whose primary function were domination and exploitation. Kaduna derived its name river Kaduna it got name from the plural from of the Hausa word of crocodile (Kaduna) which are found in river Kaduna. The federal government in 1976 introduced a Local Government reform in which native authorities were abolished and replaced with Local Government authorities throughout the federation Kaduna which had its local government status since 1974 had for the first time an elected chairman instead of appointed one. With the creation of new local government areas in 1990, local government area was later divided into the north and south and by 1992 Kaduna north headquarters at Magajingara and Makira respectively.
Kaduna North is found between latitude 10.35” north and 10.40” north and longitude 7.25”East Igabi Local government area. The local government areas has three districts namely Doka, Gabasawa and Kawo and the Local government area is found within the Sahara Savannah region of the country with an annual rainfall of 60 centimeters with land mass of 4,5567sq kilometers.
According to the Local Government Areas records, it has been estimated that the Kaduna North Local government has about 640,988 people. These people are made up of the different ethnic groups of Nigeria and almost all the people either Muslims or Christian and with only a very little fraction of the people, are either free thinkers practitioners of traditional religion. The people are spread across the twelve wards of the local government area as follows:
Maiburji, Liman, Gaji, Ungwar-Shanu/Abakpa, Kawo, Malali/Badarwa, Ungwar-Kanawa/Hayin Banki, Ungwar sarki, Gabasawa, Kabala Shaba.
Indigenous Ethnic Groups
The main ethnic groups in the area are Hausa, Gbagayi (gwari) and Fulani, although other inhabitants include Kadara, Jaba, Bajju, Kagoma, Kagoro, Atyab, Kamaton, Ikulu. Mawa, Numana, Gwandara, Kaningkon, Fatsam mada, Ayu and Ninnzam which are major ethnic groups of the state. Others are Igbo, Idoma, Tive, Yoruba, Lantang, Kanuri, Jukun, Igala, Nupe, Dankarkine Benin, Erik, and all the tribes that exist in Nigeria.
Foreigners include Britons, Germans, American, Indians and almost all other foreign nationals exist in Kaduna North Local Government Area as it is the seat of the former Northern Nigerian-North Central state and present Headquarter of Kaduna state.
Kaduna North Local Government comprises many ethnic groups and has a rich cultural heritage and predominant language is Hausa, Fulani and Gwari cultural festivals in the area include Sallah celebration (Ed-el Kabir, Ed-el Fitr and Ed-el Maulud) Christmas and Easter celebrations, Kaduna State festival of Arts and Culture, National days, New year Day (Workers Day), Children’s Day and boxing Day.
The major occupations of the local government area are:- commercial undertaking; civil service and farming, agricultural products of the local government area include maize, rice, beans, fish vegetables, fruits diary products and animal rearing.
The local government Area has the following markets which are daily except tat of Kawo
- Sheik Abubakar Gumi Market
- Kawo market (Every Tuesday)
- Ungwan Rimi Market
- Badarawa market
- Ugwan Dosa market
There are voluntary agencies that established both primary and secondary schools established by the state government area. There is a unit of Kaduna Polytechnic located in the Kaduna North.
A large percentage of the inhabitants of Kaduna North practice the agriculture marketing, poultry these farming are made up of guinea corn, corn, fishing, sugar cane, bens, groundnut, and vegetables are cheaply made in the local government area.
Considering the wide range of agricultural resources offers high potentials for good processing and refrigeration in large commercial quantities. At present, many of the farm produce are wasted in the fields or in poor storage facilities. For example, such crops as tomatoes, onions, yam beans sugar cane and fruits nut during harvest season because of large surplus. While good storage facilities may help solve the problems of scarcity during the off season good integrated processing manufacturing on industries established near by may achieve multipurpose objectives in stimulating social and economic development of the state.
Kaduna North has a university teaching hospital large and fully quipped government hospital with smaller health care centres and private owned hospital/clinics including private owned laboratories.
Kaduna North Local Government get its water supply through the water supply scheme. It also have a medium dam intakes to Kaduna river. Kaduna North Local Government Area has one of the water supply scheme located within its metropolis (Malali).
Kaduna North Local Government is supplied with electricity by the Kaduna Electricity Distribution Company (KAEDCO) stand-by generating plants also abound in most hostels, motels, guest house and private homes to forestall power failure from KAEDCO.
There are two types of housing in Kaduna North Local Government Area i.e. modern and traditional housing. The modern comprises of G.R.A, federal and state housing estate situated at various locations within the local government area e.g Malali and Ungwar Rimi, the traditional housing are usually old settlements and find across the local government are example Malali, Ungwar maisamari, Ungwar Yaro and Ungwar Kudu.
A good network of roads links most towns and villages in the state extending to other neighbouring states, there are many taxi-cabs and buses operating in commercial basis at a very cheap rate. There are also railways.
The local government has telephone services which code is 062. It is also serviced by a cell-net telephone making it possible to call and receive cellular calls.
There are post offices within the local government for both local and international transactions there is also radio stations and television within the local government owned by the government, or private individuals.
The local government I slinked with the outside world by the telephones (mobile and landline phones).
Tourism and Historical Sites
The local government is blessed with the following historical and tourist sets. They include:
- General Hassan Usman Katsina Arewa Government Garden
- Lord Lugard Hall
- National Museum
- Arewa House (Official Residence of the premier of Northern Nigerian Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna of Sokoto).
- General Hassan Usman Katsina House
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
- That rural – urban migration is the major causes of urban development in the local government area.
- That the need for social amenities are the facts that prone many rural dwellers to migrate to the urban centres.
- The search for white collar jobs and opportunities are the cause of rural – urban migration in some situation.
- The low level of income and chronic poverty are the cause of rural – urban migration in the local government area.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This research work with the topic “Assessment of the Impact of Rural – Urban Migration on the socio – economic development of Nigeria” is aimed at:
- Identifying the reasons for rural – urban migration in the Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
- To find out the problem caused by the impact of rural – urban migration.
- To lay out suggestions and policies that would help future studies in the field of rural – urban migration.
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis
H1: Rural – urban migration does have a positive impact on the socio – economic development of Nigeria.
H0: Rural – urban migration does not have a positive impact on the socio – economic development of Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the assessment of the impact of rural – urban migration on the socio – economic development of Nigeria. A case study of Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The following group will benefit from the research work:
- To add value to existing body of the knowledge
- To serve as reference point to those who wish to carry out project about rural – urban migration in the local area.
- Make Government be aware that it is the measure movement of the people from different localities that disorganizes the plan of Government toward development.
- Make Government aware that the areas are confronted with many social and economic obstacles.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research study covers Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
- Financial problem: Is the major limitation the researcher encountered is money especially in terms of transportation to where the questionnaire where distributed.
- Time constraint: Is also one of the factors that limit the researcher to some areas when giving out the questionnaires.
- Low Education level: Also the low educational level of the respondent makes the findings of this research difficult since the ability to read and write determining the effectiveness of the study.
1.8 Definition of key Terms
Migration: Migration can be defined as a movement involving change of permanent residence, from the one place to the other. It can also be defined as the relatively permanent movement of persons over a significant distance.
Rural: Rural areas are an area where social infrastructures such as electricity, tap water, hospitals etc. are lacking. It can be defined as any area that is relatively small in nature and isolated.
Urban: An urban area can be defined as any place which is densely populated, heterogeneous and is provided with social amenities like adequate transportation system, hospitals, school, tap water etc.
Rural-Urban Migration: The process involved the redistribution of population as people move from rural to urban areas. It is refers to as participation in social relations in social relations in towns and changes in behavioural patterns which such participation involves. It is concerned with the influence of town on country and implication of urban growth for social change.
Urban-Rural Migration: This process involves the redistribution of population as people move from urban areas. It refers to participation in social relations in the country (villages, hamlet etc) and changes in behaviours pattern which such participation involve.
Rural-Rural: This process involves the redistribution of population as people moves from one rural areas to another. This process does not involves substantiate changes in social relations since it involves horizontal movement (i.e.) movement between places of relative similarities in their level of socio-economic development.