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The Organization for 


in the 21st Century





The organization in the 21st century is a fast-paced, dynamic, highly stimulating environment which brings a large number of benefits and opportunities to those who work in it.

Organizations around the world transform themselves for effectiveness to enhance competition that is based on research and development, their ability to exploit change management is defined as ‘the continuous process of aligning an organization with its marketplace and doing it more responsively and efficiently than competitors (Berger, 2007).

The complexity and competitiveness of today’s business environment requires that companies continuously raise the bar on their effectiveness through research and development top performance increasingly demands excellence in all areas, including leadership, productivity, process improvement and capacity enhancement (knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies).

According to research, there are some directions to improve organizational effectiveness apart from research and development namely:

  1. Process mapping and measurement
  2. Process improvement
  3. Productivity improvement
  4. Monitoring and evaluation
  5. Improving communication processes
  6. Team building and team effectiveness improvement
  7. Cohering management teams and
  8. Rationalizing the complexities of organizational structure.

Organizational effectiveness has been one of the most extensively researched issues since the early development of organizational theory.(Woodman & Pasmore, 1991). This research is concern with the effect of research and development to organizational effectiveness.

Research which overtime turned to research and development and held the central place in discourses and policies on science, technology and innovation, Research and Development also called Research and Technical Development or Research and Technological Development in Europe, is a specific group of activities within a business. The activities that are classified as research and development differ from organization to organization, but there are two primary models. In one model, the primary function of research and development is to develop new products; in the other model, the primary function of research and development is to discover and create new knowledge about scientific and technological topics for the purpose of uncovering and enabling development of valuable new products, processes and services to enhance effectiveness. Under both models, research and development differs from the vast majority of an organization’s activities which are intended to yield nearly immediate profits for immediate improvements in operations and involve little uncertainty as to return on investment. (Cameron & Whetten, 1983).

Present-day Research and Development is a core part of the modern business world, where major decisions in the organizations are made base on research and development. Research and development is of great importance in Organization as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing hence affecting the organizational effectiveness.

In general, it has been found that there is a positive relationship between research and development organization productivity across all sectors, but that this positive relationship is much stronger in high-tech organization than in low-tech organization (Luthan, 1989). Research and development is one of the means by which organization can experience growth by developing new products or processes to improve and expand their operations thus enhancing organization effectiveness.


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